Makalu

Mene ne ku ka sani game da Covid-19 antibody test?

  • Zancen Covid-19 ko coronavirus dai zance ne da ya zamewa duniya jiki a yanzu. Kusan kullum zancen kenan idan ka duba social media ko kuma idan ka bude radio ko TV. Gwamnatocin kasashen duniya na cikin rudani na yadda za su kare jama’ansu da kuma tattalin arzikinsu daga wannan cuta da ta zama annoba a yanzu. Wannan rudani kuma ya samo asali ne akan rufe duk wasu harkoki da, a kusan duk fadin duniya, aka yi na jama’a – duk ilahirin mutane an umurce su da su zauna a gida domin rage yaduwar cutar. Wannan mataki, kamar yadda kusan duk mai hankali ya sani, zai kawo rugujewar tattalin arzikin duniya.

    Wata hanyar da ake ganin za a iya bi domin dawo da mutane kan harkokinsu na yau da kullum ita ce ta hanyar yin test na jama’a domin a tabbatar da duk wadanda ba su da cutar su fita su kama harkokinsu na yau da kullum.

    A kan maganar test, yanzu bai cin test na gano ko mutum na dauke da cutar Covid-19 da ake ta faman yi wa mutane, wani sabon zance da muke ta ji a kafafen watsa labarai shi ne test na antibodies. To amma wai shi wai mene ne wannan test din ke yi ko kuma mene alfanonsa? Bara mu gani.

    Mai karatu na iya duba: Coronavirus: Mece ce ita kuma ya ya za a kare kai daga kamuwa da

    Mene ne antibody?

    Antibody wani furotin (protein) ne da tsarin garkuwar jikin (immune system) na dan adam ke fitarwa idan ya yi detecting wani sinadari mai illa ga jiki (ana kiran su wadannan sinadarai masu illa a harshen Turacin da suna antigens). Su wadannan antibodies din suna bawa mutum kariya ne daga wannan antigen din, ta hanyar fada da su sannan kuma su taresu (blocking na su) daga dawowa jiki. Misalan su wadannan antigens din sun hada da microorganisms (microorganisms irin su bacteria, da fungi, da parasites and kuma viruses) da kuma chemicals.

    A wani lokacin kuma idan ba a yi sa’a ba wannan tsarin immune system din kan yi kuskuren daukan wasu healthy tissue na mutum a matsayin antigen sai su haifar da wannan antibodies din. Ana kiran irin wannan kuskure a Turance da suna autoimmune disorder.

    Abinda ya kamata a sani shi ne, duk wani antigen yana da antibody na daban da ke iya ba da kariya akansa. Antibody wani virus ba ya ba da kariya ga wani virus din na daban.

    Mene ne antibody test?

    Antibody test, test ne da ake yi na jini, kamar dai yadda muka san irin test jini da ake yi idan mutum bai da lafiya domin a gano matsalarsa. A wannan test din za a maida hankali ne wajen gano ko jikin mutum na dauke da wadannan antibodies din da muka yi magana a baya.

    Saboda haka, masana kimiyya na yin wannan antibody test ne don kokarin wajen gano ko akwai antibodies a jiki domin wala Allah mutum zai samu kariya daga wannan virus ko bacteria da ake magana akai.

    Idan mutum ya taba kamuwa da cutar coronavirus, ana zaton wata kila suna da wannan antibodies din na wannan cutar coronavirus din, kuma bisa ga abinda aka sani game da antibodies, mutum zai zama yana da kariya ke nan daga kamuwa da wannan cutar a karo na biyu. Amma dai masana suna dari-dari akan yanke hukunci game da wannan batu. Yanzu haka masana na ta aikin gano ko idan mutum na da antibody na Covid-19 zai sami wannan kariya da aka san antibodies na bayarwa akan viruses. Saboda kasan cewar Covid-19 sabuwar cuta ce, masana sun tabbatar basu da tabbacin lallai haka maganar ta ke.

    Masana sun yi imanin cewa mutane da dama sun kamu da Covid-19 kuma sun warke amma ba su sani ba saboda cutar ba ta nuna alamu a jikinsu ba. Saboda haka su ka ce idan anyi wannan antibody test din kuma aka tabbatar suna da antibodies din Covid-19 din za a iya barinsu su koma harkokinsu domin an san ba za su sake kamuwa da cutar ba. Amma hakan zai faru ne idan har aka gano antibody din Covid-19 na bada kariya ga mai shi.

    Hukumar lafiya ta duniya wato WHO ta gargadi kasashe da kar su yi saurin cewa duk wadda aka gwada aka same shi da Covid-19 antibody shi ke nan ya tsira da sake kamuwa da wannan cutar, don kaha za a barshi ya yi gararambar shi yadda ya ke so. Hukumar ta wallafa wata makala, a ranar 24 April, 2020, mai taken ‘"Immunity passports" in the context of COVID-19, domin warwarewa duniya halin da ake ciki game da wannan antibody test na Covid-19 din.

    Mene ne blood plasma?

    Wani batu da muke ta ji game da wannan cutar ta Covid-19 shi ne blood plasma, blood plasma donation da makamantansu. To wai shin mene ne wannan blood plasma?

    Blood plasma wani bangare ne na jini wadda shi ne ruwa da ke a cikin jinin mutum. Daya daga cikin aikin plasma shi ne tabbatar da blood pressure na mutum na cikin koshin lafiya. Kuma shi ne ke daukan abubuwa masu muhimmanci (irinsu protein, da minerals, da nutrients da kuma su hormones) zuwa ga wasu sassan jikin na daban.

    Plasma ya dauki kashi mai tsoka na jinin jiki. Kashi 55% na jini plasma ne, sauran su ne white blood cells, da red blood cells da kuma platelets. kalar plasma ita ce pale yellow (kalar kamar ruwan koyi haka nan). Kashi 90% na plasma ruwa ne. Yana dauke da gishiri da enzymes. Plasma na dauke da antibodies wadanda su ke yaki da su infection da kuma protein mai suna albumin da kuma fibrinogen.

    Ku duba wannan makala game da tambayoyi da amsoshi 10 game da cutar coronavirus

    Blood plasma donation

    Blood plasma donation shi ne idan mutum ya yadda ya zai ba da blood plasmarsa domin ya taimakawa bincike ko kuma samar da maganin wani cuta. Ana yin sa ne ta hanyar daukan jinin mutum sannan a saka a wani na’ura da zai rabe tsakanin bangarorin na jinin. Anan ne ake rabe plasma da sauran sinadaran da su ke jikin jini. A dauki plasma din sannan a mayarwa mutum da sauran jininsa tare da wani dan sinadri.

    Mutum na iya zama donor ne idan ya cika kaidoji da aka gindaya. Kamar yadda American Red Cross suka wallafa a sashinsu na yanar gizo, suka ce yana da kyau a san wadannan abubuwa kamar haka:

    1. Type AB plasma shi ne kawai irin wadda ake iya bawa kowa wani irin blood type
    2. Kashi hudu (4%) ne na alumma ke da wannan type AB blood din
    3. Ana amfani da plasma product ne don jinyar kuna, da trauma da kuma cutar kansa.
    4. Mutum na iya donating a kowani bayan kwana 28 har izuwa sau 13 a shekara
    5. Lokacin yak e dauka mutum wajen donation shi ne kimanin awa daya da minti 15

    Sannan a tuntubi cibiyar lafiya mafi kusa domin sanin ko an shika ka’idodin blood plasma donation.

    Alakan blood plasma da Covid-19

    Ana sa ran cewa mutanen da suka kamu kuma suka warke da ga cutar Covid-19 suna da antibodies a cikin plasmarsu wadda zai iya yakan wannan virus din. Shi wannan plasma din da ake kira da convalescent plasma masana na ta gwajin akansu ko wala-alla za a yi amfani da su wajen maganin ba da kariya ga kamuwa da cutar Covid-19 ko kuma magani ga masu fama da tsananin cutar.

    A yanzu haka dai kasashe da dama, musamman masu ci gaba, suna ta wannan gwaje-gwajen don samun, akalla wani dan, maslaha ga wannan annoba da ta addabi duniyarmu.

    Abin lura: Wannan cuta ta Covid-19 sabuwar cuta ce da su ma kansu masana harkan lafiya suna ta fama bincike ne don gano ainihin cutar da yadda za a shawo kanta. Saboda haka duk wani magani da kuma wani dabara da aka sani game da magunguna ko jinya babu wani tabbacin za su yi amfani, a dai yanzu haka, akan wannan cuta. Sai a lura domin samun bayanai daga majiya masu tushe kamar hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya wato WHO ko kuma cibiyar lafiya ta kasa ko jiha.

    Allah Ya ba mu lafiya, amin.

    Hakkin mallakar hoto: Ahmad Ardity from Pixabay

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