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Blogs » Ilimin Kimiyya » Physics: Darasi game da heat da kuma temperature

Physics: Darasi game da heat da kuma temperature

  • A karkashin ilimin kimiyyar lissafi wato (physics), yau zamu yi karatu ne akan wata maudu’i mai matukar mahimmanci. Wannan maudu’in kuma ba wata ba ce face heat. Idan muka tuna a makalar da ta gabata mai suna energy mun ce heat nau’i ne daga cikin nau’ukan energy. A yau zamu kawo muku cikakken bayani dangane da heat kashi na farko. Domin mun raba heat din gida biyu ne, wadda zan kawo bayani akan kashin karshen a SS2 work in Allah Ya yarda.

    Mene ne heat?

    Heat wani nau’i ne na enaergy da ake iya transfer daga bangare zuwa wani bangaren a sanadiyar banbancin na temperature. S I unit na heat shi ma dai joule ne(j).

    Mene ne temperature?

    Temperature kuma shi ke auna yanayi na zafi ko sanyi da jikin mutum ko na guri ya ke da shi. Ana anfani ne da na’ura da ake kira thermometer don yin gojin temperature sa’annan kuma S I Unit din sa shi ne 

    Dubi: Darasi game da energy da kuma work

    Abubuwan da kinetic theory of matter ya fada game da matter (assumption of kinetic theory of matter)

    1.Matter is made up of atoms and molecules. Wato matter ya samu ne daga atoms ko kuma mu ce molecules ne suka samar da shi.

    2.The molecules are in a state of constant random motion. Su kwayin halitta na molecules a koda yaushe suna cikin yanayi ne na motsi, wato basu hutawa.

    3.They possess kinetic energy because of their motion. Su molecules din suna da kinetic energy ne a sanadiyar wannan motsi da suke yi random.

    4.The kinetic energy of the molecules is directly proportional to the temperature of the

    body.

    Mene ne effect (illoli) na heat akan abubuwa?

    Duk lokacin da aka kusanto da wuta wato heat kusa da abubuwa kamar su (iron, gallon, water, e.t.c.) zai jawo wasu illoli kamar haka:

    1.Chemical changes. Idan aka kusanto da heat kusa da wani abu, kemikal da aka yi wannan abun na canzawa.

    2.Temperature changes. Idan aka kusanto da heat kusa da  abu, temperature na abun na karuwa .

    3.Expansion/contraction. Idan aka kusanto da heat kusa da  wani abu, abun din na iya buduwa ko motsewa wato ya zama karami idan aka samu heat na sa ya ragu.

    4.Change of state (melting, vaporization, sublimation). Idan har temperature na wani abu ya haura to, yana iya yuwuwa abun da ke solid ne ya narke ya zama liquid (melting process) ko kuma abunda ke liquid na iya zama gas (vaporization process). Ko ma daga solid din yana iya zama gas (sublimation) kai tsaye.

    5.Change in pressure in gases at constant volume. Idan aka kusanto da heat kusa da abu, pressure da ke tsakanin gas molecules din na karuwa ne idan har temperature ya karu domin molecules sun samu energy da zai basu dama su ta colliding (tunkudan juna ko mu ce karo da juna).

    6.Thermionic emission. Yana nufin idan aka sa karfe a wuta sa’an nan aka fitar da karfen bayan ya yi zafi sosai muna ganin wasu abu suna ficewa daga jikin karfen, to wa’yan nan abubuwan sune ake nufi da thermionic emission.

    Aikin gida (exercise)

    1.Define temperature and state its unit.

    2.State three assumptions of the kinetic theory of matter.

    3.Give three differences between heat and temperature.

    4.Give four effects of heat on a substance.

    Mai karatu na iya duba: Darasin physics akan motion force da kuma friction

    Bayan akan linear expansion, coefficient of linear expansion (&alpha

    Linear expanssion: Na nufin tsawon abu ya karu kawai. Solids (karafuna) daban-daban yanayin yadda tsawon su ke karuwa sun banbanta domin yanayin coefficient na linear expansivity na su ba daya ba ne. Zamu iya kawo shi a Turance kamar haka; linear expansion is expansion in length of a body. Different solids expand at different rates, this is because they have different coefficient of linear expansivity.

    Kuna iya karanta: Bayanai game da work done da kuma power

    A nan mu ka zo karshen wannan darasi. Da yardan Allah zamu ci gaba da kawo muku misalai game da area ko superficial expansivity dama bayani akan cubic expansivity, da application of heat da heat transfer a makalarmu ta gaba.

    Rubutawa: Abu Ubaida Adamu

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