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Cutar Sickler: Hanyar samunta, alamunta da kuma hanyoyin kariya

  • Mece ce cutar sikila (sickle cell disease)?

    Jini wanda ake gani a zahiri idan mutum ya ji ciwo ko kuma ya yanke jikinsa yana dauke da abubuwa iri daban – daban, kamar su plasma, Red Blood Cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBCs), Platelets da sauransu. Cutar sickler ko amosanin jini tana faruwa ne idan aka samu matsala a RBC.

    RBC yana ɗauke da sinadarin ‘Haemoglobin (HB) a cikinsa. Haemoglobin (HB) kala-kala ne; akwai Haemoglobin A (HBA), Haemoglobin B(HBB), Haemoglobin C (HBC), da sauransu. HBA shi ne lafiyayyen haemoglobin. Sauran HB ɗin ba lafiyayyu bane.

    Cutar sickler tana ɗaya daga cikin cututtukan da ake iya kauce musu kafin samuwarta. Idan kuma cutar ta samu, to tana da wahalar magani.

    Ma’anar cutar sikila

    Idan aka ce mutum na dauke da cutar sikila tana nufin mutum yana ɗauke da sinadaran haemoglobin guda biyu marasa kyau (ba lafiyayyu ba) a jikinsa. Ma’ana dai ya gaji gurɓatattun sinadaren haemoglobin daga wurin mahaifiya da mahaifi

    Karin bayani game da cutar sickler

    A yanzu haka, cutar sikila na ɗaya daga cikin cututtukan da za a iya cewa na neman zama ruwan dare, saboda yadda ake yawan samun yin aure tsakanin masu rukunin jini AS da AS ko SS da AS.

    Cutar sickle cell anaemia, mugun ciwo ne. Larura ce da ke raunata mai fama da ita har ma da iyalan mai fama da ita, da al'umma baki daya.

    An ware ranar 19 ga watan Yunin kowace shekara a matsayin ranar yaƙi da cutar amosanin jini wato sikila a duniya. Rana ce da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ware domin fadakar da al'umma kan wannan cutar a matakin ƙasa da kuma na ƙasa da ƙasa.

    Najeriya ta fi yawan masu cutar a duniya. Bincike ya nuna cewa duk shekara ana haifar jarirai 300,000 a duniya kuma rabi daga wannan yawan a Najeriya ake haifar su. Daga cikin 150,000 na Najeriya din nan 100,000 ne ke mutuwa duk shekara.

    Alkalluma sun nuna cewa ma fi yawan masu cutar suna Arewacin kasar ne. Masana kiwon lafiya sun yi amanna cewar rashin yin gwajin jini kafin aure yana taka rawa sosai wajen haifar yara masu dauke da cutar sikila a kasar.

    Shan magunguna har abada

    Masu fama da cutar sikila suna fara shan wasu magunguna tun daga lokacin da aka gano suna dauke da cutar har zuwa karshen rayuwarsu.

    Daga cikin magungunan akwai 'Folic Acid' wanda ya ke kara musu jini, saboda kwayoyin jininsu na yawan karewa. Akwa kuma 'Paludrine' magani ne da ke kare su daga kamuwa da cutar maleriya don tana wahalar dasu sosai idan suka kamu.

    Sai maganin 'Peniciillin V' shi kuma aikinsa shi ne kare su daga cututtuka masu alaka da numfashi. Sai 'Hydroxyurea' wanda ya ke taimaka wa kwayoyin jinin siffarsu ta zama mai kyau, ya ke kuma taimaka musu wajen rage tashin ciwon. Amma yawanci ana shan shi ne ga wanda ciwon ke masa tsanani.

    Yawaita shan ruwa

    Yawan shan ruwa abu ne mai matuƙar muhimmanci ga masu cutar sikila saboda rashin ruwa yana tayar musu da ciwon kwankwaso da na gabobi. Sannan shan ruwan na sa jini ya dinga gudu yadda ya kamata kuma kwayoyin jini su dinga wucewa cikin jijiyoyi, wanda haka ke hana ciwon yawan tashi.

    Zafin ciwon ya fi na nakuda

    Tsananin zafin ciwon kwankwaso da masu cutar kan yi fama da shi lokaci zuwa lokaci yana matukar ta'azzara musu. Ƙwararru a harkar lafiya sun ce zafinsa ya fi na nakuda. Suna jin ciwon kashi kamar ana kwankwatsa shi, jini ba ya isa wasu wuraren don haka idan suka taru a waje daya sai su saka ciwo.

    Shafar lafiya jima'i

    Wannan ciwo bai bar masu shi ta bangaren shafar lafiyar jima'insu ba. Ciwo ne da ke hana su rawar gaban hantsi sosai a wasu lokutan ta wannan fanni.

    Ga maza dai yawanci, kwayoyin jini masu kamar kauje na makalewa a gabansu sai jinin ya ki fita ya taru a wajen, sai al'aurarsu ta mike ta ki sauka.

    A wasu lokutan har sai an yi 'yar karamar tiyata, wasu kuma da an sanya kankara sai ta taimaka wajen kwantar da gaban.

    Kuka da ihu ba babba ba yaro.

    Tsananin zafin da ciwon ke zuwa da shi kan sa masu yin sa su dinga gurzar kuka tare da gunji da gurnani. A irin wannan yanayi ba babba ba yaro za a ga sun fita hayyancinsu.

    Karaya ba tare da jin ciwo ba

    Daga cikin wasu abubuwan mamaki dangane da wannan ciwo shi ne yadda a wasu lokutan sai kashin wata gaba ta jikin masu ciwon ya karye bal. Ba komai ke jawo hakan ba sai tsabar zafin ciwon da ke taso musu.

    Mai karatu na iya duba:Cutar typhoid: Alamunta, hanyoyin kamuwa da kariya daga gare ta

    Yadda ake samun cutar sikila

    Ana samun cutar sickler ne daga wurin iyaye (uwa da uba). Uba shi kaɗai ba zai iya haifar da/ƴa mai sickler ba haka ma uwa ita kadai ba za ta iya haifar da/ƴa mai sickler ba. Dole sai da gudunmawar kowanne daga cikinsu (uwa da uba).

    Ko wane mutum yana da sinadaren haemoglobin a jikinsa nau’i biyu. Zan yi magana akan haemoglobin A da kuma haemoglobin S kawai saboda su ne suka fi yawa. kowane mutum yana da ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan Haemoglobin ɗin:

    1. Haemoglobin AA (HbAA)
    2. Haemoglobin AS (HbAS)
    3. Haemoglobin SS (AbSS)

    Wanda ke da HbAA yana da lafiyayyun haemoglobin guda biyu. Mai HbAS yana da lafiyayyen Haemoglobin guda ɗaya da kuma wanda ba lafiyayye ba (ba mai kyan ba) guda ɗaya. Sannan mai HbSS yana da haemoglobin guda biyu marasa kyau.

    Mai HbAA lafiya kalau ya ke. Ma’ana bashi da ciwon sickler.

    Mai HbAS shima lafiya kalau ya ke, bashi da ciwon sickler amma zai iya haifar da/ƴa mai sickler idan ya auri mai HbAS. Don haka, HbAS shi ake kira da ‚carrier‛. Mai HbSS, shi ne ya ke da ciwon sickler

    Lokacin da za’a halicci mutum a cikin mahaifiyarsa, uwa tana bada gudunmawar haemoglobin guda ɗaya, sannan uba ma yana bada gudunmawar haemoglobin guda ɗaya.

    Idan uba ya bada gudunmawar haemoglobin maras kyau (HbS) sannan uwa ma ta bada gudunmawar haemoglobin maras kyau (HbS), to tabbas dan da za’a haifa, zai kasance sickler ne (HbSS).

    Ga dai yadda za ta kasance idan aka yi aure aka haifi yara

     Don haka, idan ana so a kaucewa cutar sikila, to kada ayi aure tsakanin.

    ‘AS’ da ‘AS’,

    ‘AS’ da ‘SS’,

    ‘SS’ da ‘SS’.

    Alamomin cutar sikila

    Suna bayyana ne tun yaro yana karami a mafi yawancin lokaci. Alamomin sun hada da;

    • Kumburin ƴan yatsu.
    • Ciwon ƙashi mai tsanani.
    • Dashewar jiki (karancin jini)
    • Ƙanƙantar jiki

    Da sauransu

    A dubaAbubuwan da ya kamata mu sani game da cutar brain tumor

    Illolin ciwon sikila

    • Ciwon sickler yana haifar da illoli daban – daban, kamar:
    • Yawan rashin lafiya akai akai kamar ciwon ƙashi, ƙirji, ciki da sauransu.
    • Shanyewar barin jiki (stroke)
    • Ciwon koda
    • Rashin zuwa makaranta ko kuma yawan tangarɗar karatu
    • Yawan karancin jinni
    • Shaye-shaye
    • Saurin mutuwa (mutuwa lokacin kuruciya da sauransu).

    Maganin ciwon sikila

    Babban maganin ciwon sickler shi ne kada ayi aure idan akwai yiwuwar a haifi ɗa mai sikila. Kuma ana iya gane haka ta hanyar yin gwajin genotype. Amma idan ciwon ya samu, to hanya daya ce wadda ake iya maganin wannan cuta.

    Hanyar ita ce, dashen bargo (Bone marrow transplant). Shi wannan dashen bargo yana tare da irin tasa matsalolin kuma ba ko wane lokaci ake yin nasarar warkewa ba. Sannan kuma yana da tsada matuka da gaske.

    Ana bawa masu sickler wasu magunguna domin samun sauƙin rashin lafiya akai akai. Shi ya sa ake so masu sickler su dinga zuwa wajen likita lokaci zuwa lokaci koda babu abinda suke ji na rashin lafiya.

    Abubuwan da suke tayar da rashin lafiya ga masu ciwon sikila

    1. Zafi mai tsanani
    2. Zazzaɓi (ko na malaria ko kuma wani abu daban
    3. Motsa jiki mai yawa
    4. Ɓacin rai. Da sauransu

    Don haka yana da kyau a kauce wa waɗannan abubuwan.

    Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, ciwon sickler yana saka rashin lafiya akai akai, yana hana jin daɗin rayuwa, sannan kuma yana sanadiyar mutuwar mutum yana karami. Ana iya kaucewa ciwon idan aka bi shawarwarin likitoci ta hanyar yin gwajin genotype. Allah Ya bamu lafiya da zaman lafiya.

    Ku karanta bayanan Sickle cell anemia a Turance

    Rubutawa: Maryam Haruna, a registered midwife, daga Zamfara, Nigeria

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