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Takaitaccen tarihin Fela Kuti

  • An haifi Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti a ranar Asabar 15-10-1938, a Abekuta ta jihar Ogun.

    Iyayensa manyan mutane ne domin Mahaifiyarsa Fummilayo Ransome-Kuti, 'yar gwagwarmaya ce, mai fafutukar kwato 'yancin mata. Mahaifinsa Isra'el Olodotun Ransome-Kuti, babban limamin coci ne, shugaban makaranta, kuma shi ne shugaban farko na hadaddiyar kungiyar malaman makaranta ta kasa, wato National Union of Teachers (N.U.T.).

    Karatu

    Fela ya halarci Abeokuta Grammer School. A shekarar 1956 aka kai shi London domin ya karanci ilimin likitanci, wato Medicine, amma sai Fela ya sauya shawara zuwa karantar ilimin kade-kade da wake-wake, a Trinity College of Music.

    Kayan karatu na farko da Fela ya fara mallaka shi ne Kakaki. Tun a makaranta ya kirkiri wani gungu na mawaka da makada da ya sanya wa suna KOOLA LOBITOS.

    A shekarar 1960 Fela ya auri matarsa ta farko mai suna Remileku; ita ma mawakiya ce.

    Fela ya dawo Nigeria tare da tawagarsa ta mawaka da makada, inda ya sake jaddada sunan tawagar ta KOOLA LOBITOS, tare da fara daukar horarwa ta musamman shi da yaransa a kan aikin jarida bangaren gabatar da shirye-shirye a gidan Redio na kasa. Sun yi aiki tare da Victor Olaiya na wani dan takaitaccen lokaci.

    A shekarar 1967 Fela ya tafi kasar Ghana don ya koyo wasu sabbin salayen kida, wanda daga nan shi ma ya kirkiro nashi salon da ya sanyawa suna AFROBEAT, wanda cakuduwar salon kidan mawaki Highlife, Fuuk, da na mawaki Jazz, Salsa, calypso, da kuma kidan yarabawa na gargajiya.

    Tarihin wake-wake

    A shekarar 1969 Fela ya kwashi tawagarsa ya tafi kasar America, inda ya kwashe watanni goma a Los Angelis. Fela ya yi amfani da wannan lokacin ya hade da wata kungiya mai suna Black Power Movement Through Sandra Smith. Wadda yanzu ake kira (Sandra Izsodore). Ya yi aiki da kungiyar a matsayin mawakin da ke yada manufofinta. Ya samu ƙwarewa sosai ta fuskar waƙe-waƙensa da kuma sha'anin siyasa.

    Ya sauyawa ƙungiyarsa suna zuwa 'Nigeria 70' jim kaɗan bayan Immigration and Naturalization Service ta haramtawa ƙungiyar ta Fela yaɗa aiyukanta da take yi ba tare da shaidar izini ba. A shekarar dai ta 1969 ya saki wata waƙa mai suna ‘The 69' Los Angeles Session.

    A shekarar 1970 Fela ya kwaso tawagarsa ya dawo Nigeria a fusace, tare da sauya sunan tawagar zuwa AFRIKA 70', har ma ya yi wata waƙa wadda ita ma a fusace ya yita, kuma ita ce ta farko a sauya salon waƙoƙinsa da ya yi izuwa ga matsalolin zamantakewa. A shekarar dai ya buɗe wata katafariyar Studio ita ma a fusace, ya sanya mata suna KALAKUTA REPUBLIC.

    (Fela ya aro kalmar KALAKUTA ne daga wata haɗaɗɗiyar ƙungiyar ƙwararrun ƴan ta'adda a ƙasar India, mai suna Black Hole of Calculta) Studion ta zama wani muhalli ne na mutane da dama, musamman waɗanda ke da alaƙa da tawagar ta sa. Bayan ɗan wani lokaci sai Fela ya fara yin kira a kan a baiwa wannan gidan nasa ƴancin gashin kai, yadda zai dinga gudanar da harkokinsa ba tare da dokar ƙasar ba.

    Da tafiya ta yi tafiya, sai Fela ya buɗe gidan holewa da daddare (Night Club), da sunan Afro - Spot, a Empire Hotel. Daga baya kuma sai ya sauyawa wajen suna da AFRIKA SHRINE, mafiyawancin mutanen da ke zuwa wajen, da mawaƙan da ke cashewa Yarabawa ne, musamman a lokutan bukukuwansu na gargajiya.

    Fela ya sauyawa kansa suna zuwa ANIKILAPO, ma'ana, wai mutumin da ke ɗaukar mutuwa ya sanya ta a jakarsa. Sai dai kuma wasu masharhanta sun ce; ai kirari ne yake yiwa kansa da cewa; "Ni ƙwararre ne a dukkan ƙaddarata, amma zan miƙa wuya a duk lokacin da mutuwa tazo ɗaukata."

    Daga baya Fela ya daina amfani da sunan 'Ransome' a cikin sunansa, saboda la'akari da ya yi cewa suna ne da ke da alaƙa da bayi.

    Ku karanta takaitaccen tarihin Ibrahim Taiwo.

    Waƙoƙin Fela sun yi fice a Nigeria da sauran ƙasashen Africa, saboda amfani da karyayyen turanci (Pidgin) da yake yi a waƙoƙin, wanda hakan ya sa ake fahimtar saƙwanni da waƙoƙin nasa ke aikawa a sauƙaƙe. Mafiyawancin waƙoƙinsa suka ne ga yadda gwamnatoci ke tafiyar da mulkinta ga al'umma. Sannan a cikin wakokin yana bayyana yadda zai shammaci mutane wajen samar da wata kasa mai cin gashin kanta a cikin kankanin lokaci.

    A shekarar 1972 mawaki Ginger Baker ya yi wata waka mai suna 'Stratavariuos' tare da Fela da Bobby Tench. Daga wannan lokacin kuma sai Fela ya kara zama wani takadarin mutum, wanda ya kasa fahimtar sha'anin addinin Yarabawa.

    Fela da gwamnatin Najeriya

    A shekarar 1977 a karkashin tawagarsa ta 'Afrika '70', Fela ya saki album dinsa mai suna 'Zombie' a cikin wakar ne ya kai makura wajen suka da kalubalantar gwamnati da sojojin Nigeria, musamman da suka yi nawa wajen binciken dalilin kashe masa uwa da aka yi.

    Album din 'Zombie' ya samu gagarumar nasara, kuma ya bata ran gwamnati sosai. Wanda hakan ya sa gwamnati ta tura sojoji kimanin dubu zuwa Kalakuta Republic, aka kama dukkan mutanen ciki, har da Fela bayan sun lakada masa dukan tsiya. A yayin da aka jefo wata 'yar uwar babarsa ta taga, ta ji munanan raunuka. Daga lokacin kuma aka dakatar da dukkan wasu harkokin Kalakuta Republic Studio, aka lalata dukkan kayan aikin wajen. Fela ya yi zargin cewa an zo ne da niyyar kashe shi, sai kuma ya kubuta.

    Bayan ya fito ne, sai ya kwashe tawagarsa ya koma Crossroad Hotel, saboda sojoji sun tarwatsa Afrika Shrine, sannan yayi wasu wakoki guda biyu na kalubale ga gwamnati, 'Coffine for a Head of State' da kuma 'Unknown Soldier'.

    Rayuwar aure

    A shekarar 1978 Fela ya auri mata guda 27, mafi yawancinsu 'yan rawa ne, mawaka da makadan da ke aiki a karkashinsa. An yi bikin ne da manufar tunawa da ranar da aka rusa masa gida, da kuma ba wa kansa kariya daga zargin da wasu mutane ke yi masa na cewa yana yin safarar matan ne.

    Fela da wasu daga cikin matansa

    Bayan wani lokaci, sai Fela ya zabi 12 daga cikin matan ya watsar da sauran. Aka shirya ranakun biki. An kasa bukukuwan ne biyu.

    Na farko an saita shi da ranar da aka yi zanga-zangar kin jinin gwamnati a Accra ta kasar Ghana, wadda wakar Zombie ta jawo, kuma dalilin haka aka haramtawa Fela shiga kasar ta Ghana. Rana ta biyu kuma an saita shi da 'Berling Jazz Festival' wanda a ranar ne mafi yawancin mawakan da ke karkashinsa suka yi masa bore, saboda jita-jitar da suka ji cewar yana yin wani shiri na yin amfani da damarmakinsu da kuma kudadensu domin yin yakin zaben takarar shugaban kasa.

    Siyasa da gwagwarmaya

    Fela ya karkatar da akalar harkokinsa ga sha'anin siyasa, har ma ya kafa wata jam'iyya mai suna 'Movement of the People' (M.O.P)

    A shekarar 1979 Fela ya aiyana kansa a matsayin na kan gaba a cikin 'yan takarar shugabancin kasa, sai dai sauran 'yan takarkaru sun yi watsi da wannan ikirarin nasa.

    Fela ya sake sauyawa kungiyarsa ta Afrika '70, zuwa 'Egypt 80'

    "Babban dalilinmu na son wayarwa da 'yan Africa kai a kan manufofin kungiyar Egypt Civilazation shi ne dalilin da ya sa na sauya sunan tawagata izuwa ga Egypt 80." A wata hira da aka yi da Fela ya fadi hakan.

    Fela ya ci gaba da yin wakokinsa tare da zagaye sassan kasar nan, a lokaci guda kuma yana nisanta kansa da 'yan siyasar kasar, wadanda ya kira da mutanen da ke jefa mutane cikin tsananin damuwa. Har ma ya taba bayyanawa hukumar I. T. T. (International Telephone and Telegraph Corp) wanda har ma mataimakin shugaban kasa na lokacin Mashood Abiola ya yi wani kakkausan suka ga hukumar ta I. T. T, ya kira ta da sunan 'International Thief Thief.'

    A shekarar 1984, gwamnatin Buhari ta daure Fela a gidan yari, bisa zargin yana buga kudin jabu, amma sai kungiyar Aminesty International ta kare shi, tare da bayyana daurin a matsayin yarfen siyasa.

    Bayan ya shafe watanni ashirin a daure, sai Aminesty din hadin gwiwa da wasu kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam suka sake shigar da kara,

    Gwamnatin General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida ce ta fito da shi. Fela yana fitowa ya saki 12 daga cikin matansa, tare da yin wani rubutaccen bayani kamar haka: "A cikin aure ake samun kishi, da kuma son kai!"

    Fela ya ci gaba da sakin album dinsa da sunan tawagar Egypt 80, tare da zagayen kasashen turai da America, kuma yana ci gaba da harkokin siyasarsa.

    Ashekarar 1986 Fela yana daga cikin mawaƙan da suka yi wasa a 'Giants Stadium' a wani biki da Aminesty International ta shirya na murnar cikarta shekar ashirin da biyar da kafuwa.

    A 1989 Fela ya fitar da wata waƙa 'Anti-apartheid'

    A ranar 21-1-1993 aka kama Fela da mutane huɗu na cikin tawagarsa ta Egypt 80, inda aka tuhume su da laifin kisan kai. Tun daga lokacin aka fara samun sauƙin caccakar gwamnati da sojojin Nigeria, har zuwa lokacin mulkin Sani Abacha.

    An ce Fela ya kamu da tsananin rashin lafiya a lokacin da yake tsare, kuma ya ƙi amincewa da ayi masa magani.

    Rasuwar Fela

    Ranar 3-8-1997 wani ɗan uwan Fela, Farfesa Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, tsohon ministan lafiya na Nigeria, ya sanar da mutuwar Fela; ya sanar cewa ɗan uwan nasa ya sha fama da wata larura mai alaƙa da cuta mai karya garkuwar jiki. Sai dai tsoffin matan Fela basu amince da cewa tsohon mijin nasu yana da cuta mai karya garkuwar jiki ba.

    An binne Fela a kusa da tsohon gidansa na Afrika Shrine, sama da mutane miliyan guda ne suka halarci bikin binne gawar Fela.

    Rubutawa: Zaharadden Nasir, daga Kano, Nigeria

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