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Physics: Ko kun san wadda ya fara gano Snell's law of refraction?

  • A darussanmu na kimiyya da fasaha a gefen kimiyyar lissafi (physics) yau zamu duba asalin mafarin Snell law ko kuma law of refraction. Wannan law din ya yi bayani ne akan alaka tsakanin angle of incidence da angle of refraction idan ana magana akan lokacin da haske ke ratsa waves kamar ruwa, ko gilashi ko iska da sauransu.

    Idan aka haska lazer pen cikin kofin glass na ruwa, idan muka duba da kyau zamu ga beam na haske ya lankwashe lokacin da ya shiga ruwan, wannan abu ne wanda kowanne mai ilmin kimiyyar lissafi wato (physicist) yasan ana kiransa da snell’s law of refraction.

    DubaPhysics: yadda ake lissafin screw

    Idan muka duba wannan zannen wadda aka same shi shekara ashirin (20 years) da suka gabata daga wajen wani masanin kimiyya mai suna Ibn Sahl, wadda ya yi rayuwa shekara fiye da dari shida (more 600 years) da suka gabata, za mu ga cewa wannan masani ya siffanta wannan Snell law of fraction din dai-dai da yadda muka fahimce shi a yau. 

    Hakkin mallakar hoto: The physicist wiki   Wannan zane shi ne asali da ga Ibn Sahl

    Ga bayanin Ibn Sahl akan Snell’s law dalla dalla:

     

    Wannan layin yana representing boundary da ke tsakanin iska da ruwa ne.

    Idan beam na light ya shiga ruwa ta wani angle zai yi refracting ya lankwashe zuwa vertical

    Angle na farko ya fi angle na biyu girma, ana kiran angle da ya shiga cikin ruwa da angle of Refraction, shi kuma wanda shine na farko ana kiransa da angle of incident.

    Abinda muka sani tun a can baya ancient Greeks sun fahimci cewa angle of incident ya fi angle of refraction girma, amma sun san cewa ratio da ke tsakaninsu remain constant idan a kai doubling angle na incident, angle na refraction ma haka, yanda su kai bayaninsa shine game da ratio na circle din. To amma ba haka muka fahince shi ba a yau.

    Kamar yadda Ibn Sahl ya fahimta shine sashi na angle na straight lines ya ce cord A divided by cord B is always a constant number. Wannan shine ake amfani da shi a yanzu, wanda Ibn Sahl ya gano shi tun shekaru 650 da suka gabata. Saboda haka ya kamata ne ace da shi Ibn Sahl’s law of refraction, ba wai Snell law of refraction ba domin kuwa Ibn Sahl shine mutum na farko da ya gano wannan law din. 

    A latsa wannan don ganin yadda Professor Jim Al-Khalili, na University of Surrey, ya yi wannan bayani a daya daga cikin irin documentaries na shi.

    Ga yadda law of refraction suke a Turance, kamar haka:

    1. The incident and refracted rays are on opposite sides of the normal at the point of incidence and all three are in the same plane.
    2. The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence (i) to the sine of the angle of refraction (r) is a constant for a given pair of media. This is also known as Snell’s law and is stated thus.

    Sin i / sin r = ∩

    ∩ = wannan alama ita ake kira da refractive index of the second medium with respect to the first nedium. Iska da glass ana amfani dasu a matsayin misali na daya na media, yana iya zama da banbanci.

    General equations for refractive index are as follows:

    1. Refractive index of glass, a∩g = sin I in air/sin r in glass
    2. Refractive index of air, g∩a = sin I in glass/sin r in air

    Therefore, a∩g = 1/g∩a  or  g∩a =  1 / a∩g

    1. a∩g = speed of light in air/speed of light in glass, misali, a∩g  = Va/Vg

     a∩g = wavelength of light in air/wavelength of light in glass, misali, a∩g= λa/λb

    while the speed and wavelength of light change from one medium to the other, the frequency remains unchanged.

    Wannan shine bayanai a takaice game da Snell law of refraction wadda Ibn Sahl ya fara ganowa shekaru daruruwa da suka gabata.

    Insha Allah a makala ta ta gaba zan kawo misalan yadda ake amfani da wadannan equations na refractive index don yin lissafi da su. Da fatan hakan zai sa mu fahimce su sosai.

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