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Bayanin kimiyya game da radiation da irin cutarwar da yake yi

  • A yau za mu yi karatun mune karkashin wani maudu’i mai matukar muhimmanci wanda muna cutuwa daga gareshi ta hanyoyi daban-daban, a saukake cikin harshen Hausa. Muna iya kiran RADIATION da iska mai guba ko kuma hasken rana mai bala’in gudu sannan muna iya juya shi a Turanci dai-dai gwargwado kamar haka; Radiation is a way that energy or heat moves or is a form of energy that moves at high speed in free space. Background radiation ana iya samun su a ko ina wanda ana kiran su da low level radiation, kamar rana, kasa, duwatsu da dabbobi dukkan su suna bada low level radiation, amma Nuclear power plant yana bada radiation sosai amma yawanci yana ajiye ne a tsakanin reactor a duk lokacin da reactor kuma ya samu matsala kamar yadda ya faru a fukushima a Japan a shekarar 2011. Radiation yana iya escaping ya zama dangerous to the environment. Formula na energy na radiation shine E = hf = hc/λ

    λ=hc⁄E, ta yadda c =speed of light , h=planck constant,  f=frequency na radiation da ya zo,  E =Energy na radiation.

    Radiation sources

    Radiation source ya kasu gida biyu: Natural radiation sources da kuma human-made sources wanda suke jin sa a yau da kullum acikin rayuwarsu. Natural radiation yana zuwa ne daga sources dayawa wanda ya hada da sama da sources guda 60 wadanda are naturally occurring radioactive materials wanda ake samun su a cikin, soil, water, and air, sai kuma akwai su Radon, a naturally occurring gas, emanates from rock and soil su ne main sources na radiation wanda kullum mutane ke shiga ko ta wani ciwo dake jikin mutum ko kuwa hadiya wato ingesting radionuclides daga cikin abinci da ruwa.

    Har ila yau kuma mutane suna samun radiation daga cosmic rays, musamman at high altitude. On average, 80% na radiation acikin shekara dake zuwa daga karkashin kasa wanda mutum yake jinsa yana faruwa ne sakamakon Natural terrestrial and cosmic radiation sources.

    Mai karat una iya duba wannan makala da ta yi bayani akan energy quantization.

    A karkashin ilmin kimiyyar lissafi wato physics ana defining din Radiation ne a Turance kamar haka; Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium. Wadannan radiation da muka yi magana akai a definition sun hada da:

    Electromagnetic Radiation:- ya samu ne sanadiyar haduwan “electric da magnetic field”. Wannan radiation basu bukatar wani abu gurin tafiyar su (material medium). Misalansu sune: radio waves, microwaves ,infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma radiation wavelength na su ya fara daga 10^-14 zuwa 10^6m

    Particle Radiation: Wadannan kuma sune aka fi sani da alpha radiation, beta radiation and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy).

    Acoustic Radiation: Sune suka hada da ultrasound, sound, seismic wave, dependent on physical transmission on medium.

    Gravitational Radiation: Wannan radiation ne that takes form of gravitational wave or ripple in the curvature of space time.

    Kowanne radiation ya na karkashin radiation da aka ambata sai dai akan raba radiation zuwa gida biyu wanda sune kodai ya zama ionizing ko kuma non-ionizing, ya danganta da energy of the radiated particles.

    Ionizing Radiation: Yana dauke da sama da 10eV wanda ya isa ya yi ionizing atoms and molecules and break chemical bonds. Wannan banbancin yanada matukar muhimmanci sakamakon babbar cutarwa ga abubuwa masu rai. Sannan nun source of ionizing radiation shine Radioactive Materials wanda shi yake emitting abubuwa guda uku gasunan zan kawosu tare da bayanansu.

    Alpha Radiation (α):- Yana dauke ne da heavy positively charged ( He) particles emitted by atoms of element such as uranium and radium. Alpha yana dauke da helium nuclei, kuma ana iya tsaida shine tare da amfani da sheet of paper ko kuma tin layer na fatar  jikinmu (epidermis). Kuma idan  har aka shaki alpha material ya shiga cikin jikinmu ko kuma aka ci a abinci ko aka sha a ruwa, yana causing biological damage.

    Beta Radiation(β):- Yana dauke da electrons, positrons da kuma photons, sannan its negatively charged kuma they are more penetrating (sun fi shiga jiki idan aka dangan ta shi da alpha particle) than alpha, ana iya tsaidashi ta hanyar amfani da aluminum plate.

    Gamma Radiation (γ):- Wadanan kuma they are electromagnetic radiation, wanda suke daga medical radiography examinations and uons, mesons, positrons, neutrons, and other particles, similar to X-rays, light and radio waves. Gamma rays ya danganta ne da energy din shi wanda yana iya shiga ta cikin jikin mutum amma ana iya tsai dashi ta hanyar amfani da thick walls of concrete or lead.

    Neutrons; - Are uncharged particles and do not produce ionization directly. Amma idan suka hadu da atoms ana iya samun particles kamar su alpha, beta, da gamma rays. A Turance zamu iya cewa “ their interaction with the atoms of matter can give rise to alpha, beta, gamma, or X-rays which then produce ionization”.

    Duk da bama iya gani ko jin cewa akwai radiation, ana iya gano shine kawai ta hanyar measuring in the most minute quantities with quite simple radiation measuring instruments called radiometer. Yana da kyau mu san mene ne ionize din shi kansa. A harshen Turanci kalmar ‘ionize’ refers to the breaking of one or more electrons a way from an atom, an action that requires the relatively high energies that the electromagnetic waves supply.

    None-ionizing: Ana ce masa lower energies of the lower ultraviolet spectrum wanda ba zai iya ionizing atoms ba amma kuma it can disrupt the inter-atomic bonds which form molecules, thereby breaking down molecules rather than atoms. Akwai misalai dayawa na non-ionization kamar zafin rana wanda its caused by long wavelength, sai kuma solar ultraviolet (wannan nau’in na radiation ya rabu gida uku UVA, UVB, and UVC duk suna samuwa daga hasken rana da kuma na lantarki. UVC is very dangerous ga mutane sai kuma UVB, invisible light, infrared and microwave frequency.

    Wadannan misalan na non-ionization basa iya breaking bonds sai dai kawai suna haifar da vibration a bonds wanda muke jinsa a matsayin heat. Su kuma radio wave length da sauran na kasansu ba’a sa su a cikin abubuwa that are harmful to biological system.

    Ya kamata musan cewa kalmar radiation arises from the phenomenon of waves radiating, i.e. (travelling outward in all directions) from a source.

    Kafin mu kawo irin cutarwar da radiation yake yi mai karat una iya duba wata makalarmu da ta yi bayani akan general gas law.

    Cutarwar da radiation ke yi

    Babbar cutarwar da radiation ke yi shine yana nakasa, wato damages the cells that make up the human body.

    Low level na radiation basa cutarwa amma medium level yana haifar da abubuwa da dama kamar ciwon kai, amai da zazzabi da sa fatan jikin mutum ya zama baki.

    Shi kuma high level na radiation yana iya kashe mutum ta hanyar haifar da dameji acikin internal organs na shi.

    Wannan bayanan da muka kawo muku sune abinda radition ya kunsa don haka a makalarmu ta gaba za mu yi magana dangane da radioactivity ta yadda zaku kara fahimtar alakar radiation da radioactivity sakamakon yawanci dalibai na daukar su duk  abu guda ne, wato basu iya banbance su.

    Example: A certain radio station is assigned a frequency of 2000KHz. Estimate the wavelength of its radio wave take c = 3×10^8m/s

    Solution: Da farko zamu fitar da abubuwan da aka bamu a cikin question din

    F = 2000KHz = 2000000Hz domin kilo yana nufin dubu daya kuma tunda an bamu sppeed of light c = 3×10^8m/s

    Using λ =   = 3×10^8m/s /  2000000Hz

    Amsar wavelength namu wato λ = 1.5×10^2 = 150m

    Kuna iya duba makalarmu akan resistivity and conductivity.

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