Makalu

Physics: Bayani akan position, scalar and vector a kimiyyance

  • A karatunmu na yau a fannin kimiyya da fasaha ko kuwa kimiyyar lissafi wato physics za mu yi bayani akan wadannan abubuwa ko in ce kalmomi guda uku wanda suna da alaka da junansu. Kalmomin sun hada da:

    Position (wuri)

    Menene position, wato wuri a kimiyyance?

    Na tabbata idan aka tambayi mutum a wani wuri yake a yanzu, zai iya ba da amsa yana mai ambaton wurin (position) da yake. Amsar zai iya kasancewa kamar haka: “ina daki na ne” ko “ina zaune akan kujera a daki na” ko “ina kusa da teburin karatuna”, amsar dai zai iya kasancewa mutun na ambaton wurin (position) da yake ne. Dubi makalarmu da ta yi magana akan iska mai guda (radiation).

    A kimiyyance, in aka ce position ana nufin wuri ne da mutum yake ko kuma wuri ne da aka ajiye abu. Idan ana so a san wurin (position) da mutum ko wani abu yake akan plane kamar peper akan yi amfani da lambobi na axes ne, wato x-axis da y-axis. Mutum ko wani abu zai iya kasancewa ne a wannan bangare na x-axis da kuma daya bangaren na y-axis a lokaci guda. Ga misali

    Hoto 1: Yana nuni da x-axis (Hakkin Mallakan Hoto:study.com)

     

    Hoto 2: Yana nuni da y-axis (Hakkin Mallakan Hoto: study.com)

    Mutum ko abu zai iya kasancewa a lamba biyar (5) na x-axis sannan kuma yakasance a lamba -7 na y-axis a lokaci guda, da dai makamancin haka.

    Ga formula dake nuna position a plane: P=x1, y2. Sannan ana amfani da ma’aunin unit meter ne wajen gwajin position.

    Idan kuma ana so a samo position na abu a filin sararin sama (space) akan yi amfani da axes guda uku ne wato x,y,z a maimakon layi biyu x da y. Dalilin haka shine filin sararin sama yana amfani da dimension uku ne.

    Scalar quantity

    A kimiyyance, scalar quantity na nufin ma’auni ne dake nuna wasu abubuwan dake nuni da girma (magnitude) na abu ba tare da an shigo da alkiblar wannan abun ba. Kuma shi scalar lamba (number) ne na lissafi kamar 1,2,3, da dai duk lambar da ya kama na lissafi. Misalan abubuwa masu amfani da scalar sun hada da:

    • Distance
    • Speed
    • Area
    • Volume
    • Time
    • Mass
    • Temperature

    Idan ana son a hakikance scalar quantity na wani abu sai an ambaci girma (magnitude) da kuma ma’auni unit na shi gaba daya.

    Misalai:

    • Distance: Nisan da ke tsakanin Lagos zuwa Minna shine kilomita dari shidda da goma (610km)
    • Speed: Gudun mota shine kilomita dari (100km) a duk sa’a daya.
    • Area: Kewayen fili ya kai square kilomita 250 (250km2).
    • Volume: Kwalin takalmi yana da zurfin cubic inches 225 (225Inches³).
    • Time: Lokacin da ake dauka zuwa kasuwa shine minti hamsin (50minutes).
    • Mass: Nauyi dutse ya kai kilogram 20 (20 Kg).
    • Temperature: Karfin sanyi ruwa mai sanyi shine 0 0C.

    Abin lura: A wadannan misalan in kun lura wajen nuna scalar quantity an fara da magnitude (lamba) ne sannan aka biyo da ma’aunin unit na kowannensu.

    Vector quantity

    Vector quantity a physics wani ma’auni ne dake nuna wasu abubuwan dake nuni da girma (magnitude) na abu da kuma alkiblarshi (direction). Shi vector quantity ba kamar scalar ba, inda abu ya dosa yana da tasiri matuka wajen bayyana girmansa ko yawan wannan abun. A wani bangaren kuma dubi yadda ake lissafin speed a physics.

    Saboda haka vector yana samuwa ne idan aka tabbatar da za’a iya fadan girma (magnitude) da kuma alkiblar (direction) abu. Misalan vector sun hada da:

    • Displacement
    • Velocity
    • Force
    • Acceleration
    • Momentum

    Ga misalan yadda ake amfani da vector quantity a yau da kulum:

    • Displacement: Mota ta yi displacement na mita 100 ta kudu (100m/south)
    • Velocity: Volocity na bus 0.02km/s to the south
    • Force: Karfi da aka sakawa akwati (box) kafin a matsar da shi, shi ne Newton 8 ta hagu (8N to the left).
    • Acceleration: Dutse da aka jefa yana accelerating akan meter 2 a cikin second square (2m/s2).
    • Momentum: Mota na tafiya a momentum 1000 kg•m/s ta kudu.

    Abin lura: A wadannan misalan in kun lura wajen nuna vector quantity an fara da magnitude (lamba) ne sannan a ka biyo da ma’aunin unit sannnan daga karshe aka biyo da alkiblar (direction) ko wannensu.

    Daga karshe idan mai karatu na biye da mu, munyi magana ne akan; Position: wadda muka ce, wuri ne da mutum yake ko wajen da aka ajiye wani abu. Sannan mun tabo wani abu akan  Scalar: wadda yake nufin ma’auni dake nuna wasu abubuwan dake nuni da girma (magnitude) na abu ba tare da an shigo da alkiblar wannan abun ba.  Vector: ma’auni ne dake nuna wasu abubuwan dake nuni da girma (magnitude) na abu da kuma alkiblarshi (direction).

    Dadin dadawa za ku iya karanta darussa daban daban a kan physics a wannan dandali namu kamar su, Rabe-raben makamashi (forms of energy) da sauransu.

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