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Hukunce-hukuncen zakkar fidda kai

  • Ma'anar zakkar fidda kai:

    Sadaka ce wacce ake bayar da ita sakamakon kammala azumin watan Ramadan.

    An shar'anta zakkar ne a shekara ta biyu bayan hijirar Annabi sallallahu alaihi wa sallam daga Makkah zuwa Madinah, a shekarar da aka wajabta azumin watan Ramadan.

    Hukuncin zakkar fidda kai:

    Fitar da zakkar fidda kai wajibi ne ga dukkan musulmi, namiji da mace, babba da yaro, 'da ko bawa.

    An karbo daga Abdullahi Bin Umar (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ce:

    «??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??????».

    Ma'ana: "Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) ya wajabta zakkar fidda kai, sa'i daya na dabino, ko sa'i daya na sha'ir, akan bawa da da, namiji da mace, da kuma  babba da yaro daga cikin musulmai. Kuma ya yi umurni da a bayar da zakkar kafin mutane su fito zuwa sallar idi". Buhari da Muslim ne suka rawaito hadisin.

    Hikimar wajabta zakkar fidda kai:

    An wajabta zakkar fiddai kai saboda wasu hikimomi kamar haka:

    1. Tsarkake mai azumi daga yasasshen zance da kuma batsa.
    2. Saboda ciyar da miskinai da talakawa abinci a ranar Sallah, don kar su fita rokon mutane abinci a ranar sallah.
    3. Don godiya ga Allah Madaukakin sarki saboda kamala azumin Ramadan.

    An karbo daga Abdullahi Bin Abbas (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ce:

    "??? ???? ???? - ??? ???? ???? ???? - ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????????".

    Ma'ana: "Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) ya farlanta zakkar fidda kai don ta zama tsarkaka ga mai azumi daga yasasshen zance da batsa, kuma abinci ne ga miskinai". Abu Dawud da Ibn Majah ne suka rawaito shi.

    Malamai sun hadu kan cewa zakkar fidda kai wajibi ne. Ibnul Munzir yace: "Kuma sun yi ijma'i akan zakkar fidda kai farilla ne".

    Mai karatu na iya duba wannan makala da ta yi bayani akan falalar azumin watan Ramadan

    Wadanda zakkar fidda kai ke wajaba akan su:

    Zakkar fidda kai yana wajaba ne akan dukkan musulmi, namiji ko mace, babba ko yaro, da ko bawa. Saboda Hadisin Ibn Umar wanda ya gabata.

    Magidanci zai fitar da na shi da na matan sa da 'ya'yan shi da duk wanda suke karkashin sa.

    Mustahabbi ne fitarwa jaririn da ke ciki, saboda an rawaito Sayyidina Usman (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya kasance yana fitarwa jariri.

    Sharuddan wajabcin zakkar fidda kai:

    Zakkar fidda kai tana wajaba ne da sharudda guda biyu:

    1. Zakkar tana wajaba ne akan musulmi, bata wajaba akan kafuri. Allah Y ace:

    «??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???????»

    Ma'ana: "Kuma babu abin da ya hana a karbi ciyarwarsu daga gare su face domin su, sun kafirta da Allah da Manzon sa". Suratut Tauba, aya ta 54

    Haka nan Hadisin Ibn Umar (Allah Ya yarda da shi) wanda ya gabata, ya nuna cewa zakkar na wajaba ne akan musulmi kadai.

    2. Tana wajaba ne akan wanda yake da abinda zai ci a ranar sallah da daren wannan ranar, kuma ya samu rara akan hakan.

    Lokacin da ake bayar da zakkar fidda kai:

    Zakkar fidda kai tana wajaba ne da zaran rana ta fadi a ranar karshe na watan Ramadan. Duk wanda ya mutu kafin faduwar rana, to bata wajaba akan sa ba.

    Duk wanda aka haifa kafin faduwar rana, ko ya musulunta kafin faduwar ta, to zakkar fidda kai ta wajaba akan sa.

    Lokacin da ya fi shine fitar da ita ranar idi, daga fitowar alfijir zuwa kafin a tafi masallacin idi. Saboda ya zo a hadisin Ibn Umar (Allah Ya yarda da shi), ya ce:

    «???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??????».

    Ma'ana: "Kuma (Manzon Allah tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi umurnin a fitar da ita kafin mutane su tafi wurin sallar idi". Bukari da Muslim ne suka rawaito hadisin.

    Baya halatta a jinkirta fitar da zakkar zuwa bayan sallar idi. Duk wanda ya jinkirta ta zuwa bayan salar idi, to zai sa ta zama sadaka, kamar yadda ya zo a Hadisin Ibn Abbas (Allah Ya yarda da shi), ya ce:

    "??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ???????".

    Ma'ana: "Duk wanda ya bayar da ita kafin sallar idi, to wannan zakkah ce karbabbiya. Wanda kuma ya bayar da ita bayan sallah, to sadaka ce daga cikin sadakoki".

    Ya halatta a fitar da zakkar fidda kai kwana daya ko kwana biyu kafin ranar sallah. Saboda Sahabbai sun kasance suna yin haka kamar yadda ibn Umar (Allag Ya yarda da shi) ya ce:

    «?????? –?? ???????- ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????»

    Ma'ana: "Kuma (Sahabbai) sun kasance suna bada ita kafin sallah da kwana daya ko biyu". Buhari ne ya rawaito shi.

    Kuna iya duba makamancin wannan makala da ya yi sharhi akan hukunce-hukuncen shiga ittikafi.

    Wani nau'in abinci ne ake bayarwa?

    Ana bayar da irin nau'in abincin da mafi rinjayen mutanen gari suke ci, kamar dabino ko alkama ko zabib ko shinkafa ko masara ko gero ko dawa, da sauransu.

    An karbo daga Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (Allah Ya yarda da shi) yace:

    «??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????».

    Ma'ana: "Mun kasance muna fitar da zakkar fidda kai sa'i daya na abinci, ko sa'i daya na sha'ir, ko sa'i daya na dabino, ko sa'i daya na cukui (shine nonon da ya bushe; ana girki da shi), ko sa'i daya na zabib". Buhari da Muslim ne suka rawaito wannan hadisi.

    Gwargwadon abinda ake fitarwa:

    Ana fitar da sa'i daya na abinci, wanda shine mudun Annabi sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. Sa'i yana daidai da cikin tafuka biyu sau hudu na matsaikacin mutum, ko kuma kusan nauyin kilogiram uku.

    Wadanda ake baiwa zakkar fidda kai:

    Ana bada zakkar ne ga miskinai da fakirai. Saboda hadisin Ibn Abbas (Allah Ya yarda da shi) wanda yake cewa:

    "??? ???? ???? - ??? ???? ???? ???? - ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ????????".

    Ma'ana: "Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) ya farlanta zakkar fidda kai don ta zama tsarkaka ga mai azumi daga yasasshen zance da batsa, kuma abinci ne ga miskinai". Abu Dawud da Ibn Majah ne suka rawaito shi.

    Sa'an nan ya halatta a bayar da zakkar ga mabukaci guda daya, ko a rarraba ta ga sama da mutum daya. Amma abinda ya fi shine a bada ita ga dangi na kusa wadanda ciyar da su bai wajaba akan mai zakkar ba.

    Shin ya halatta a bada kudi madadin abinci?

    Malamai sun yi sabani kan hukuncin bada kudi a madadin abinci.

    Akwai malaman da suka tafi akan ba laifi in an bayar da kudi ko kima idan akwai bukatar haka.

    Amma magana mafi rinjaye ta malamai itace: ba ya halatta a bada kima ko kudi. Ibn 'Kudamah yace: "Bada kima (a zakkar fidda kai) ba zai wadatar ba, saboda karkata ne daga ya zo a nassi (hadisi)".

    Mai karatu na iya duba wata makalar da ta yi karin bayani akan zakkar ta fidda kai. Allah ne Masani.

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