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Hukuncin wanda ya ga jinjirin watan Ramadan ko na Shawwal shi kadai

  • Bismillahi rahmanir Rahim

    Godiya ta tabbata ga Allah Madaukakin Sarki. Tsira da aminci Allah su tabbata ga shugaban Manzanni, Annabi Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wa sallam.

    Bayan lura da yadda mutane suke ta maganganu akan ganin jinjirin wata shawwal a jiya, har ma suke da'awar zasu yi sallah, ba zasu bi umurnin sarkin Musulmi ba, na ga ya dace in bincika wannan mas'ala don sanin hukuncin wanda ya ga jinjirin wata da idonsa. Da fatan Allah ya datar da mu abinda yake shi ne daidai.

    Kafin na yi bayani akan hukuncin, bari mu duba hanyoyin da ake tabbatar da shigan watan Ramadan bisa shari’a.

    Hanyoyin da ake tabbatar da shigar watan Ramadan

    Azumin watan Ramadan yana wajaba ne idan aka tabbatar da shigar watan. Akwai hanyoyi guda uku da ake tabbatar da shigowar watan Ramadan:

    Hanya ta farko: Ta hanyar ganin jinjirin wata. Saboda Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) yace: "Ku yi azumi saboda ganin shi (ma'ana jinjirin wata)". Bukhari da Muslim ne suka rawaito hadisin. Saboda haka duk wanda ya ga jinjirin wata da kan shi, to ya wajaba a gare shi yayi azumi.

    Hanya ta biyu: A samu adilin mutum ya bada labarin ya ga jinjirin wata. Idan shugaba ya gaskata labarin, zai bada umurni a tashi da azumi. An karbo daga Abdullahi Bin Umar (R.A), ya ce: Mutane sun fita dubiyan jinjirin wata, sai na baiwa Manzon Allah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam labarin cewa na gan shi, sai ya azumce shi, kuma ya umurci mutane da azumrtarsa". Abu Dawud ne ya rawaito shi.

    Hanya ta uku: Cikar watan Sha'aban kwana talatin. Hakan ya kan kasance ne idan ba'a ga jinjirin watan Ramadan ba ranar ashirin ta tara ga watan Sha'aban. Saboda Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: "Idan aka yi muku hazo, sai ku cika kirgen Sha'aban kwana talatin". Bukhari da Muslim ne suka rawaito shi.

    Wadannan sune hanyoyin da ake sanin shigowar watan Ramadan. Haka nan sune hanyoyin da ake sanin shigowar watan Shawwal.

    Idan mutum ya ga jinjirin wata shi kadai, sai ya baiwa shugaba labari, sai ya zama shugaba bai karbi shaidar sa ba, to yaya hukuncin sa zai kasance?

    Wanda ya ga jinjirin watan Ramadan shi kadai

    Duk wanda ya ga watan azumin Ramadan shi kadai, to ya wajaba a gare shi ya dauki azumi. Wannan shine kaulin mafi yawa daga cikin malaman Hanafiyya da Malikiyya da Shafi'iyya da Hanabila a daya daga cikin riwayoyi.

    Saboda Allah Ya ce: "To duk wanda ya halarta daga gare ku a watan sai ya azumce shi". Suratul Bakara, aya ta 185. Kuma Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: "Idan kuka gan shi – wato jinjirin wata - sai ku yi azumi".

    Saboda haka shi wannan da ya ga jinjirin wata shi kadai, ya tabbatar da shigowar watan Ramadan, don haka dole ne yayi azumi.

    Ibn Rushdi ya ce: "Malamai sun yi ijma'i kan wanda ya ga jinjirin watan azumi, lalle zai yi azumi, sai Ada'u bin Abi Rabah (ne kadai ya saba), yace: Ba zai yi azumi ba, sai in har wani ya gani tare da shi". Duba littafinsa Bidayatul Mujtahid wa Nihayatul Muqtasid (2/48)

    Imam An-Nawawi ya ce a cikin littafinsa Al-Majmu (6/280): "Duk wanda ya ga watan Ramadan shi kadai, to azumi ya wajaba akan shi".

    Sheikhul Islam Ibn Taimiyya ya ce: (Abu Sa'id ya ce: "Idan ka ga jinjirin wata Ramadan, to ka yi azumi, idan kuma ba ka gani ba, to ka  yi azumi tare da jama'ar mutane, kuma ka sha tare da jama'ar mutane"). Duba littafinsa Sharhul Umdah (1/91).

    Amma akwai malaman da suka ce: Ba zai dauki azumi be, zai jira ya fara tare da jama'a. Wannan shine dayan kaulin Imam Ahmad, kuma shine zabin Ibn Taimiyya.

    Sai dai kuma maganar mafi yawan maluma ita ce tafi rinjaye.

    Mene ne hukuncin wanda ya ga wata shi kadai, sannan ya ki dauka azumi?

    Malamai sun yi sabani dangane da wajabcin kaffara ga wanda ya ga azumin Ramadan kuma ya ki daukan azumi:

    1. Lalle duk wanda ya ga watan Ramadan shi kadai, to wajibi ne ya dauki azumi, idan kuma bai yi hakan ba, to akwai biyan azumi a kan sa, amma babu kaffara akan sa. Wannan shine kaulin Hanafiyya.

    Hujjar su ita ce: Shugaba ko Alkali ya ki karban shaidar sa ne saboda yana tuhumar sa da kuskure a ganin watan, wannan ya sa ya ki karban shaidar sa. Wannan shubuhar ita ce zata kore kaffara a kan shi.

    2. Duk wanda ya ga jinjirin watan Ramadan shi kadai, sannan ya ki yin azumin wannan ranar, to akwai kaffara akan sa. Wannan shine kaulin Malikiyya da Shafi’iyya da Hanabila a riwaya ingantacciya.

    Sun kafa hujja da cewa: Shi wannan mutumin ya sha azumi ne dagangan, kuma ya keta alfarmar watan Ramadan, saboda haka akwai kaffara akan shi, kamar ya sha rana ta biyu ne a watan Ramadan.

    Mai karatu na iya duba makala da ta yi bayani akan hukunce-hukuncen shan azumi da biyan sa.

    Wanda ya ga jinjirin watan Shawwal shi kadai

    Malamai sun yi bayani akan wanda ya ga jinjirin watan Shawwal, shin zai sha?

    1. Bai halatta ya sha ba, zai jira ne ya sha tare da jama'a. Wannan shine kaulin Abu Hanifa da Malik da Ahmad.

    2. Duk wanda ya ga watan Shawwal shi kadai, to zai yi aiki da ganin sa, ma'ana zai sha. Wannan shine kaulin Shafi da Abu Thaur. Sai dai Imamush Shafi'i yace: zai sha a boye, saboda gudun kar a tuhume shi a addinin sa.

    Magana mafi rinjaye: kaulin farko shi ne ya fi, shi ne duk wanda ya ga jinjirin watan shawwal shi kadai, ba zai sha ba, zai jira umurnin shugaba, don ya yi sallah tare da jama'a. Saboda fadin Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: "Azumi shine ranar da kuke azumi, shan ruwa (ranar Idi) shine ranar da kuke shan ruwa, layya ita ce ranar da kuke yin layya".

    Saboda kamar yadda idan mutum daya zai ga jinjirin watan Zul Hijja ba zai je ya yi tsayuwar Arfa shi kadai ba, haka nan wanda ya ga jinjirin watan Shawwal ba zai yi sallah shi kadai ba.

    TSOKACI A TAKAICE

    • Duk wanda ya ga jinjirin watan Ramadan shi kadai, sai ya zama shugaba ko alkali bai karbi shaidarsa ba, to wajibi ne ya dauki azumi.
    • Duk wanda ya ga jinjirin watan Shawwal shi kadan, sai ya zama shugaba ko alkali bai karbi shaidarsa ba, to wajibi ne ya jira ya yi sallah tare da jama'a a mafi rinjayen kaulin malamai. Ma'ana zai yi azumi na talatin tare da jama'a.

    Ibn Usaimin yace: "Wannan a babi taka-tsantsan (ma'ana shine ya fi), sai ya zama mun yi taka-tsantsan a azumi da kuma sha. A dauka azumi mun ce masa: Yi azumi. A wurin sha kuma mun ce masa: kar ka sha, ka yi azumi".

    • Wannan yana nuna kenan wanda bai ga jinjirin watan Shawwal ba, dole ya bi umurnin shugaba, ya jira yayi sallah tare da jama'a. Saboda shugaba shine yake da hakkin sanar da ganin jinjirin wata.

    Sheikhul Islam Ibn Taimiyya yace: "Saboda shugaba shi ne mafi tsantsan a wannan lamari, kuma ya fi tsananin kiyaye shi, wajibi ne a bi shi a wannan lamari, kamar yadda za'a bi shi a abin da yake umurni da shi na jihadi da waninsa".

    Allah ne mafi sani.

    Mai karatu na iya duba makalar da ta yi bayani akan sharudda da kuma ladubban sallar idi karama.

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