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Yadda gwagwarmayar Ken Saro-Wiwa ta yi awon gaba da rayuwarsa

  • KEN SARO WIWA
    Haihuwa da karatu.

    An haifi Kenule Beeson Ken tsaro Wiwa, a ranar 10 ga watan October, na shekarar 1941. Ɗa ne ga Chief Jim Wiwa, sarkin ƙabilar Ogoni, wata ƙabila da ke jihar Rivers a yankin kudu maso gabashin Nigeria. Suna cikin ƙananan ƙabilu, kuma masu fama da ƙaranci, da kuma rashin kyawun muhalli a yankinsu, sakamakon manyan kamfanunnukan haƙar ɗanyen mai da ke yankin. Wannan dalilin ya sa tun wajejen shekarar 1950 su ke da ƙudurin ganin sun kori turawan da ke aikin haƙar mai ɗin, waɗanda su ne masu mallakin kamfanin Royal Durtch Shell.

    Saro Wiwa ya yi rayuwarsa ƙuruciyarsa ne a gidan yara masu rangwamen gata, na majami’ar Anglican, sai dai daga baya ya zama ɗalibi mai ƙwazo, inda ya yi Primary a Native Authority School, Bori. Ya yi sakandire a Government College Umuahia, ya zama jagoran ‘yan wasan ƙwallon tebur, (Table tennis) na makarantar. Ya kammala da kyakkywan sakamakon da ya ba shi damar samun nasarar zama ɗaya daga cikin ɗaliban da suka samu tallafin karatu a jami’ar Ibadan, inda ya karanci turanci.
    Ya shiga ƙungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta jami’a, ya lashe kyautar departmental prize sau biyu, a shekarar 1963, da 1965. Ya shiga tawagar ‘yan wasan kwaikwaiyon da suka zagaya wasu sassan Nigeria, kamar; Kano, Benin, Ilorin, da Lagos, bisa tallafin rukunin gidajen wasannin al’adun gargajiya da ke ƙasar Ingila, mai suna Nottingham Playhouse.

    SIYASA DA GWAGWARMAYAR KEN SARO-WIWA.

    Ya auri matarsa Maria Saro Wiwa, sun haifi ‘ya’ya biyar tare. Ya sauya sunansa a hukumance zuwa Saro-Wiwa, tare da auren matarsa ta biyu Widu, jim kaɗan bayan lafawar faɗan Biafara.
    Ya ɗan fara koyarwa (Teaching assistant) a jami’ar Lagos, (University of Lagos), da kuma University of Nigeria Naukka, inda ya fara koyar da Adabi. A lokacin yaƙin Biafara ne ya ajiye aikin koyarwar ya shiga tawagar jami’an kwantar da tarzoma (na sa kai) ta ƙasa. Lokacin yana goyon bayan gwamnati bisa tsare-tsarenta. Bayan ƙurar Biafara ta lafa, sai ya bar ƙauyensu na Bori ya koma Port-Harcourt, tare da yiwa jama’ar garinsu alƙawarin dawowa gare su. Kwanaki uku bayan tafiyarsa gwamnati ta girke bataliyar sojoji a kusa da garin. Wannan dalilin ya sanya shi komawa cikin iyalansa a ƙauyen, suka ci gaba da rayuwa tare a wuri guda. Ba a ɗau lokaci mai tsawo ba ƙurar ta sake lafawa, sai ya koma jami’ar Lagos yaci gaba da aikinsa.
    Bai daɗe da komawa Jami’a ba, mutanen garinsu suka sake yi masa kiranye a kan ya koma, haka ya bar aikin ya koma suka zaɓe shi a matsayin shugabansu mai shiga cikin duk wani sha’ani da ya shafi tsakaninsu da gwamnati. Ya ci gaba da riƙe muƙamin har zuwa lokacin da gwamnatin ta ba shi muƙamin kwamishinan ilimi na tsohuwar jihar Rivers, a shekarar 1970. Ya shafe tsawon shekaru uku riƙe da muƙamin.
    A shekarar 1973 ya ajiye muƙamin saboda dalilinsa na son goyawa jama’ar garinsu baya a kan neman ‘yancin kai da suke yi. A cikin shekarar dai Saro Wiwa ya bunƙasa a harkar kasuwanci, inda ya gina wasu ƙayatattun gidajen haya haɗe da shagunan kasuwanci.
    A shekarar 1977 Saro-Wiwa ya tayar da hargitsi a yayin bayyana sakamakon zaɓen wakilin ƙabilar Ogoni, bayan ya yi rashin nasara da ‘yar tazara kaɗan a hannun abokin karawarsa Edwards Kobani.

    AIYUKAN ADABI

    Saro wiwa ya yi aikace-aikace da dama da suka shafi adabi tun daga shekarar 1973. Ya yi wasan kwaikwayo na gidan talabijin, ya rubuta maƙalu da dama, ya gabatar da shirye-shirye a gidajen Rediyo, haka nan ya rubuta littafai aƙalla guda 27. Fitattu daga ciki su ne; Songs in a Time of War, da kuma Sozaboy. Duka labarai ne da ya samo tushen rubuta su a shigarsa tawagar jami’an kwantar da tarzoma a lokacin yaƙin Biafara. Duka ya rubuta su ne a shekarar 1985.
    Mafi yawancin rubuce-rubucensa yana yinsu ne cikin salon habaici, (Satire) masu ɗauke da jigogin da suka shafi cin hanci da rashawa a Nigeria. Daga baya ya karkata akalar rubuce-rubucensa a kan ‘yan siyasa, matsalolin muhalli, da kuma ‘yancin rayuwa.
    A shekarar 1987 ne ya sake shiga cikin sha’anin gwamnati, tare da dakatar da dukkan aiyukansa na adabi, bayan da ya samu muƙami a ƙarƙashin gwamnatin lokacin ta General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida. Sai dai ba a ɗau lokaci mai tsawo ba ya ajiye muƙamin, saboda zargin gwamnatin da ya yi da shirin miƙa sha'anin mulki ga ƴan siyasa, tsarin da yake ganin ba tsari ne na mutane masu gaskiya ba.
    Ya samu mabiya masu tarun yawa ne a dalilin wani shirin barkwanci mai dogon zango da ya rubuta, wanda ake gabatar da shi a gidan talabijin na NTA, tun daga shekarar 1986 har zuwa 1990, mai suna Basi and Company. An ƙiyasta adadin makallatan film ɗin cewa sun kai kimanin miliyan talatin. Ance shi ne shiri mai dogon zango da aka fi kallo a kaf nahiyar Africa.

    GWAGWARMAYAR NEMAN ƳANCIN KAI

    A shekarar 1990 ne Saro-Wiwa ya karkata dukkan akalarsa ga matsalolin da ƙabilarsa ta Ogoni ke fuskanta, tare da bayar da cikakken lokacinsa don ganin an shawo kan matsalar. A cikin shekarar 1992 ya kafa ƙungiyar Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni people (MOSOP), kuma ya jagoranci ƙungiyar a matsayin shugaba kuma mai magana da yawun ƴan ƙabilar. Manufofin ƙungiyar dai su ne; nemawa ‘yan ƙabilar Ogoni ‘yancin rayuwa, neman kuɗin diyya saboda gurɓacewar muhallinsu a dalilin haƙar ɗanyen mai da kamfanunnuka ke yi, tare kuma da buƙatar a gyara musu inda ya lalace.
    Ƙungiyar MOSOP ƙarƙashin jagorancin Saro-Wiwa, sun sha fama da babban kamfanin hada-hadar ɗanyen mai da iskar gas ɗin nan na Duniya, wato Royar Dutch Shell, a game da gurɓatar muhallansu. Don tun a shekarar da ya kafa ƙungiyar wato 1992, sai da aka ɗaure Saro-Wiwa a gidan yari na tsawon wasu watanni ba tare da kowace irin takarda ta ƙa’ida daga Sojojin Nigeria ba.
    A shekarar 1993 ya yiwa ƙungiyarsa ta MOSOP rijista da ƙungiyar Unrepresented Nations And People Oganization (UNPO), ƙungiya ce ta duniya wadda ke da muradin kare haƙƙin ƙananan ƙabilu, da kuma addinai marasa rinjaye. Saro-Wiwa ya zama mataimakin shugabn ƙungiyar tun daga shekarar 1993, har zuwa 1995.
    A watan June, ƙungiyar MOSOP ta yi wani gangami na zagaya gari don jawo hankalin duniya game da halin da suke ciki, ɗauke da rubututtukan dake nuna irin haɗarin da rayuwarsu ke ciki a dalilin gurɓacewar muhalli, da kuma buƙatunsu na son samun yalwatacciyar rayuwa. Fiye da rabin ‘yan ƙabilar Ogoni ne suka fito zagayen.
    A watan June na shekarar 1993 mahukuntan Nigeria suka sake kama Saro-Wiwa aka kulle, amma bayan kimanin wata guda aka sake shi.

    ƘARSHEN RAYUWAR SARO WIWA

    A ranar 21 ga watan May na shekarar 1994 aka yiwa wasu sarakunan gargajiya guda huɗu‘yan ƙabilar Ogoni (waɗanda dukkansu basa goyon bayan aiyukan ƙungiyar MOSOP), mummunan kisa. An zargi Saro-Wiwa da sa hannu wajen kisan, zargin da ya musanta tare da tabbatar da cewa a ranar da abin ya faru ma gabaɗaya shi baya yankin na Ogoni. Amma duk da haka sai da hukumomi suka kama shi, tare da zarginsa da laifin tunzura matasan yankin Ogoni. Nan ma ya musanta wannan tuhumar. An kulle shi a gidan yari na tsawon sama da shekara guda ana bincikarsa, daga binciken aka same shi da laifin ɗaukar nauyin kisan, tare da wasu shugabannin ƙungiyar ta MOSOP su takwas. Waɗanda suka haɗa da; Saturday Dobee, Nordu Eawo, Daniel Gbooko, Paul Levera, Felix Nuate, Baribor Bera, Barinem Kiobel, da kuma mataimakin shugaban ƙungiyar wato John Kpuine. Dukkansu da farko an yanke musu hukuncin kisa ne ta hanyar harbewa a bainar jama’a. hukuncin da ya jawo hankalin hukumomin duniya masu yaƙi da tsattsauran hukunci, waɗanda suke ganin hukuncin ya yi tsauri. Manyan ƙasashen duniya suka umarci hukumomi a Nigeria a kan ko dai su sauya hukuncin, ko kuma su janyen duk wata hulɗa ta ƙawance da taimakekeniya da ƙasar.
    A yayin zaman jiran wa’adi a gidan yari, Saro-Wiwa ya ci gaba da ƙalubalantar kwamfanin Royar Dutch Shell. Har zuwa loakcin da aka zartar musu da hukuncin ƙarƙashin ikon shugaban ƙasa General Sani Abacha. Bayan zartar da hukuncin wasu daga cikin waɗanda suka bayar da shaidar cewa su Saro-Wiwa ne suka aikata kisan, sun bayyana cewa jami’an gwamnati ne suka basu cin hancin kuɗi tare da yi musu alƙawarin samar musu aiki a kamfanin Shell.
    A ranar Juma’a 10 ga watan November na shekarar 1995, aka kwashe su Saro-Wiwa daga inda suke tsare a barikin sojoji aka mayar da su gidan yari na Port Harcourt, saboda tsoron kar matasan kabilar Ogoni su kawowa wajen hari. Duk da tsauraran matakan da aka dauka, amma sai da ɗaruruwan mutane suka yi zanga-zanga tun daga kan titi har zuwa gidan yarin. An shigar da su wani ɗaki hannuwansu sanye da ankwa, sannan aka rataye su ɗaya bayan ɗaya.
    Kalmar ƙarshe da Saro-Wiwa ya furta a duniya ita ce;
    “Allah ka karɓi ruhina, amma gwagwarmaya ta ci gaba da wanzuwa…”

    Bayan an kashesu, zanga-zanga ta ɓarke a sassa da daman a ƙasar nan, har sai da ta kai an zagaye maƙabartar Port Harcourt da sojoji kafin a binne gawarwakinsu.
    Hukuncin ya jawowa Nigeria baƙin jini daga manyan ƙasashen duniya, manyan mutanen daga ƙasashen duniya sunyi Allah-wadai da hukuncin.
    Ƙungiyar tarayyar turai European Union ta soke irin hukuncin, tare da ambatarshi a matsayin zalunci. Sannan ta umarcin dukkan membobinta kan su janye dukkan wata hulɗa da suke yi da Nigeria.
    Hakazalika ƙasar Amerika ta dawo da jakadanta na Nigeria gida, tare da janye dukkan wata hulɗa tsakaninta da Nigeria. Sannan ta haramtawa sojojin Nigeria da iyalansu shiga ƙasarta. Haka ma ƙasar Ingila ta ɗauki irin wannan matakin. Shi ma shugaban ƙasar Afrika ta kudu Nelson Mandela, ya buƙaci da a dakatar da Nigeria a Commonwealh of Nation. Shugaban ƙasar Kenya Daniel arap Moi, da na Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe duk sun goyi bayan Mandela.
    Shugabannin Amerika da turai, sun tattauna a kan cewa za a hukunta Nigeria da cireta daga cikin dukkan wata haɗaka ko hulɗar komai da ƙasashen duniya, matuƙar bata koma tsarin mulkin dimukraɗiyya ba.
    Ƙungiyoyin kare haƙƙin ɗan adam daga ko'ina a faɗin duniya sunyi Allah wadai tare da sukar wannan hukuncin.
    shekara guda bayan kashe shi, suka karrama shi da lambar yabo ta GOLDMAN EMVARONMENTAL PRIZE.

    Ƙarshen rayuwar Saro-Wiwa, ya zamo iri ɗaya da ƙarshen rayuwar Bana, tauraron wani gajeren labarinsa da ya rubuta a shekarar 1989, mai suna “Africa Kills Her Sun”

    Zaharadden Nasir Kano, Nigeria.

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