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Tarihin samuwar rubutatun kagaggun labarai na Hausa

  • Tsakure                                

    Wannan aikin da aka gudanar yana bayani ne kan Tarihin Samuwar Rubutatun ?agaggun labarai na Hausa wadda ake masa la?abi da Zube, wanda cikin aikin an yi ?o?arin kawo yadda aka fara samu rubutu a cikin Hausa har zuwa yadda aka fara samun ?agaggun labarai na Hausa da yadda ya bun?asa. Daga ?arshe cikin wannan aiki ne kuma aka kawo jerin littattafan da aka samu da mutanen da suka yi ?o?ari wajen samar da wa?annan littattafai da shekarun da aka wallafa su. To duk wa?annan abubuwa da aka lissafa ba haka kawai suka samu ba, sun samu ne ta hanyar bincike da aka yi a cikin littattafai da masana suka gabatar kan wannan batu. Dubi tarihin samuwar rubutun boko a kasar Hausa

    Gabatarwa

    ?agaggun labarai na ?aya daga cikin rukunin adabin Hausawa na zamani, da masana adabin Hausa suka bayyana shi da “Zube”, wanda shi ne na farko a cikin rukunin, kafin wa?a da wasan kwaikwayo. (Yahaya da wasu, 1992).

    Shi ?agaggen labari cike yake da zantukan hira da nisha?i, wanda ba da gaske ya ta?a faruwa ba, saboda ana samar da shi ne kawai don nisha?antarwa (Mukhtar, 2002).

    To amma dangane da tarihin samuwar ?agaggun labarai na Hausa kuwa, yana da muhimmanci a fahinci mene ne rubutun zube, domin fahintar ma’anar ita ce ginshi?in samar da tarihin samuwar rubutun zuben.

    Ma’anar rubutun zube

    Masana Adabin Hausa da al’adun Hausawa da dama sun yi ?o?arin bayyana ra’ayinsu dangane da abin da suka fahinta game da ma’anar Zube.

    Dangane da haka ne Magaji (1982) a wata takarda da ya gabatar mai suna ‘Tasirin Adabin Baka a Cikin ?agaggun Labarai’. Inda yake cewa, “Zube rubutun labari ne da mawallafi ya shirya da kah, sannan ya rubuta shi a zube”.

    Mukhtar (1985) shi kuma a cikin wata ?asida mai suna ‘Yanayin ?agaggun Labarai na Hausa’ inda yake cewa “Zube wani irin zance ne wanda ake fa?ansa da baka ko kuma a rubuce wanda yake bayyana yiwuwar wata al’amari, wanda zai iya faruwa a zahiri, amma bai faru ba, ko kuma ba zai ta?a faruwa ba”.

    Mukhtar, (2002) kuma cewa ya yi “Zube na nufin rubutun da ba wa?a ba, ba kuma wasan kwaikwayo ba. Idan an ce Zube ana nufin tsagwaron rubutu ne kai tsaye wanda aka yi shi cikin shafi ko shafuka da sakin tayi daban-daban, a rubuce ko a maganance, wato ta hanyar magana.”

    Shi kuma Sheihin Malamin nan Ibrahim Yaro Yahya. A wata ?asida mai take ‘?agaggun Labaran Hausa”. Inda yake cewa “Zube ?agaggun labarai ne wanda ake shiryawa a kan wa?ansu sharru?a don bai wa jama’a abin samun hira da nisha?i”.

    Shi kuma ‘Yar Adu’a (1996) a gudumawarsa day a bayar kan ma’anar zube cewa ya yi “Zube labari ne da a kan shirya cikin hikima da fasaha kuma a gudanar da shi don nuna ?warewa, wanda ya ?unshi nuni da shiryawa ga wani abu na alkhairi ko kuma na sharri ko yakan iya zama na gaske ko na ?arya”.

    To idan aka dubi wa?annan bayanai dangane da ma’anar zube zamu fahinci cewa shi zube labari ne da aka shira shi da kah kuma a zube don samun abin hira.

    Tarihin samuwar rubutun zube na Hausa

    Dangane da tarihin samuwar ?agaggun labarai a Hausa, Mukhtar, (2002) cewa ya yi zube na Hausa ya samo asali ne ta hanyoyi guda biyu:

    • Ta hanyar addini wato rubutun zube ta hanyar Ajami, wato hanyar rubuta Hausa cikin haruffa na Larabci
    • Ta hanyar rubutun boko, wato ta amfani ba ba?a?en abacada

    Rubutun Ajami

    Wannan hanya Hausawa ne suka ?ir?iro abarsu tun asali ta hanyar rubuta sunaye na gargajiya a jikin fahami. Ta irin wannan hanya kuma manya-manyan malamai da manyan sarakuna sukan rubuta wasi?u a tsakaninsu. Amma dangane da samun ?agaggun labarai ciki, bincike ya nuna cewa an fi samun rubuce-rubucen Ajami na zube a cikin hanyar rubutu Magaribi, wato ba a faye samun rubutun Ajami da yawa a cikin rubutu na sharkiyya Irin rubuce-rubucen da aka samu cikin ajami tun wajen karni na 17 su ne irin rubuce-rubucen Malam Abdullahi Suka Kano da Wali ?anmasani a cikin Birnin Katsina da Malam Muhammadu na Birnin Gwari da dai sauransu. Amma dangane da ilmin Arabiya da samuvar Musulunci wannan tun wajen ?arni na 9 ne, domin akwai ala?a tsakanin ?asashen Hausa da na Larabawa tun a wannan ?arni. Har kwanan gobe Malaman zaure na ?asar Hausa idan za su yi rubutu na zube a cikin rubutun Ajami suke ?addamar da shi. Haka kuma akwai jaridu da akan buga a cikin ajami kamar su: Albishir da Alfijir. Da sauransu.

    Samuwar rubutun boko

    Rubutun boko yana ?aya daga cikin ire-iren rubutu na duniya da aka rattaba tsare-tsarensu, da wuraren da ake sarrafa su. Rubutun boko ba?a?e ne da wasula a jere, wa?anda suka samo asali daga rubutun Latin. Kusan duk mutane ?asashen turai kamar Ingila da Faranshi da Jamus da Portugal da sauransu, irin wannan hanyar rubutun suke sarrafawa a cikin dukkan makarantunsu da littattafansu da harkokinsu na sadarwa (Yahya, 1988:72)

    Samun labarai na wanzuwar wata sabuwar duniya a bangren Afirika ya sa turawa musammam na Portigal da na Jamus da na Faranshi da na Ingila sun tashi tsaye wajen nemo gano yanayin ciki da wajen Afirika. A cikin tafiye-tafiyen nasu wasunsu sun ziyarci garuruwan ?asashen Hausa kamar su Kano da Sakkwato, sun kuma rubuta labarin rayuwar mutanensu.

    To amma dangane da tarihin samuwarsa kuma Mukhtar, (2002) ke cewa

    “Rubutun boko bai jima da zuwa ?asar Hausa ba in aka kwatanta shi da rubutun ajami. Kafin a fara rubutu da Hausar boko a ?asar Hausa, sai da aka da?e ana amfani da ita a ?asashen Turai. Amma mutumin da ake jin ya fara amfani da ita shi ne wani Baturen ?asar Jamus mai suna James Frederick Schon wanda ya zo ?asar Saliyo aikin Mishan a 1840. ya yi tunani ya kuma ?ir?iro cewa ya kamata ya yi amfani da haruffan Latiniyya ya rubuta lafazin Hausa:

    Inda yake cewa cikin wa?a kamar haka:

    “na riya wa?annan ?a’idojin rubutu

    a raina ne, bayan na yi shekaru ina

    lura da abubuwa. Saboda haka na

    yi amanna da dacewarsu”

    (Schon, 1862).

    Bayan da Schon ya yi niyyar amfani da haruffan Latiniyya ya rubuta Hausa, sai wani Bature mai suna Lepsius, ya ba shi shawarwari a kan yadda zai kyautata rubutun. An kuma sami Turawa wa?anda suka biyo irin wannan hanyar rubutu ta J.F. Schon kamar:

    1. Prietzer a (1904),
    2. Mischlich a (1906)
    • Westermann a (1911) da sauran wa?anda suka biyo baya.

    Mukhtar, (2002) ya ?ara da cewa Bayan wannan hanyar kuma “wata hanyar rubutu cikin boko da aka fito da ita, ita ce wadda Robinson (1896) ya fito da ita, kodayake Robinson shi ma Latinanci ya yi amfani da shi, sai dai shi ya ?auki tsarin Ajami ne wajen sarrafa ba?a?en da babu su a wasu harsuna. Misali /?/ da /?/ da /?/ da sauransu, a hanyar rubutu ta Robinson wa?annan haruffan ?igo ake musu a ?asa irin na Ajami maimakon Ian?wasa. Wato sai a rubuta su kamar baka:- b k d ba tare da tan?wasa ba.

    A lokaci na farko da hukuma ta tsoma baki a kan rubutun zube shi ne lokacin mulkin mallaka a nan Nijeriya inda Hanns Vischer wanda ake ?ira ?an Hausa ya tsara ?a’idojin yadda za a yi amfani da Hausar boko a (1910) sai dai shi ma ya yi amfani ne da hanyar Robinson inda yake sa ?igo a ?ar?ashin harafi mai alhamza.

    Wata hanyar rubutun zube kuma ita ce wadda Bargery (I 934) ya yi anifani da ita; shi kuma wa?afi ya dinga sa wa bamzatattun baruffa maimakon ?igo. Kamar baka:-

    ‘b      k’     ‘d      

    Hukumar Fassara ta Jihar Arewa ita ce ta fara ba da shawara a (1938) cewa ya kamata duk hamzatattun ba?a?e a dinga Ian?wasa su maimakon ?igo ko wa?afi. (Yahaya, 1988).

    To, tun lokacin da ?an Hausa ya yi wannan ?o?ari ba a sake samun wani yun?uri ba domin kyauta rubutun Hausa sai a shekara ta 1955, lokacin da aka kafa ‘Hausa Language Board”, wato Hukumar Harshen Hausa, Sarkin Daura Muhammad Bashar ya nuna wa wannan hukumar gatanci. Ita wannan hukuma ta yi gyare-gyare a littafi mai suna Rules of  Hausa spelling, sannan, a ciki ta ba da shawarar cewa lamirin lokaci da kuma lamirin mutum kowanensu yana cin gashin kansa ne wato yana zaman kalma guda ne. to ba burin a ba ne na cigaba da kawo bayanai a kan yadda ake rubutun Hausa ba amma kuma zai yi kyau a san yadda aka fara rubutun, don shi ne jigon samuwar ?agaggun littattafai na Hausa.

    Rubuta ?agaggun littattafai

    Tarihin rubuce-rubuce na ?agaggun littattafai bai da?e ba sosai idan an kwatanta shi da tarihin wanzuwar wa?o?in baka da rubutattun wa?o?i. Yayin da su wa?o?i suka sami gatanci tun shigowar addinin Musulunci ?asar Hausa, ake amfani da su wajen ya?a addinin, su kuwa ?agaggun littattafai,  sai bayan da Turawa suka shigo ?asashenmu na Afirka ta Yamma ne suka fara samuwa, A rubuce-rubucen Turawan farko wa?anda suka shigo bincike da ya?a addinin Kirista, kamar su J,F. Schon, babu wani littafi da ya yi kama da ?agaggun littafi (Novel) . Idan aka dubi yadda Yahya (1988 ya kawo su kamar haka:

     Wa?annan su ne jerin littattafan da Schon J.F ya rubuta cikin Hausa. Amma littafin Schon na 1857 mai suna Farawa Letafen Magana Hausa, shi ne littafin Hausa na farko na zube cikin boko. To amma kuma duk cikin littattafan babu wanda ya yi kama da ?agaggen labari wato (Novel) a ciki, sai dai bugun ?arshe na (1886) wanda ya ta?o tatsuniyoyi. Littattafan yawanci jigonsu na ya?a addinin Kinista ne.

    Wani nau’i na rubuce-rubuce cikin Hausa na zube bayan wanda Schon ya yi  su ne na Turawa ‘yan mulkin mallaka kamar haka:

    Yun?uri da ha?aka samuwar ?agaggaun littattafai na Hausa

    Bayan Turawa ‘yan mulkin mallaka sun yi wa?annan rubuce-rubucen a cikin zube na Hausa, sai kuma lokacin da aka kakkafa makarantun boko a Jihar Arewa. An kafa makarantar farko a lardin Sakkwato a 1905 a ?ar?ashin shugabancin wani Bature, Mr. Burden, to amma sai talakawa suka ?i kai ‘ya’yansu don gudun kada ‘ya’yansu su zama Kirista, saboda haka sai aka rufe ta. Sai a 1909 Gwamna Lugard ya sa Mr. Harns Vischer wato (?an Hausa) ya kuma bu?e wata makarantar a Kano. Lokacin da aka bu?e wannan makaranta ba a sami wani littafin koyar da Hausa ba sai Frank Edgar ya buga littafinsa mai suna Tatsuniyoyi na Hausa a (1911). Shi wannan littafi a Ingila aka buga shi sannan har zuwa 1920 ana amfani da shi wajen koyar da Hausa. A cikin wannan shekarar ne ta 1920, kuma aka kafa Hukumar Fassara wato ‘Translation Bureau’, wannan hukuma ta samar da littattafan karatu kamar haka: Alfu Laila Wa Laila, na Larabci zuwa Hausa wato Dare Dubu Da ?aya. Littafin ya ?unshi hi?ayoyi ne na Larabawa, Sannan hukumar ta wallafa littattafai guda biyu; wato Labaran Hausawa Da Makwabtansu, wannan ya ?unshi tarihin ?asashen Hausa ne da ya?e-ya?en  da suka gudana tsakaninsu.

    Sai kuma Labaru Na Da Da Na Yanzu kuma ya ?unshi sana’o’i da al’adu na Hausawa tare da tatsuniyoyi.(Mukhtar, 2002).

    Gasar samar da ?agaggun littattafai na Hausa

    A cikin 1933 ne Daraktan Ilmi na jihar arewa, Hanns Visher ( ?an Hausa) ya ?addamar da wani shiri na gudanar da gasar rubuta ?agaggun labarai don samar da littattafan hira na labarai na rubutun zube, sai aka ?ora nauyin gudanar da gasarga hukumar Talifi wanda Dr. East ya ke shugabanta. Nan da nan sai ya zagaya manyan garuruwa yana saduwa da malamai masu gaurayen ilmi zamani da na Arabiya yana yi musu bayanin irin littattafan da ake so su rubuta, bisa ?a’idar cewa duk wanda ya ?ago wani labari a rubuce za a kar?a a shirya a buga domin a sami abin karantawa, kuma za a ba shi goro. Wannan bayani na Dr. East ya jawo hankalin malamai da dama suka wallafa littattafai suka aika domin shiga wannan gasar. Wa?anda suka yi nasara aka za?i labarun da suka rubuta su biyar ne kamar haka: yadda aka fara rubuta kagaggun littattafai na Hausa

    1. Malam Abubakar Imam ya rubuta Ruwan Bagaja
    2. Malam Bello Kagara ya rubuta Gandoki
    3. Malam Abubakar Tafawa ?alewa ya rubuta Shehu Umar
    4. Malam Muhammadu Gwarzo ya rubuta Idon Matambayi
    5. Malam Ahmadu Ingawa ya rubuta Ilya ?anmai?arfi

    Cikin wa?annan jerin littattafai, littafin Malam  Abubakar Imam Ruwan Bagaja ya ja hankalin masu gudanar da gasar suka kai ga neman ya zo zariya ya zauna yana aiki tare da su a hukumar Talifi. (Yahaya, 1988).

    Gudumawar Hukumomi da kamfanoni wajen samar da ?agaggun littattafai na Hausa

    NORLA

    A cikin shekarar 1953 Gwamnatin Jihar Arewa ta kafa wannan Hukuma (NORLA) wato Northern Region Literature Agency, ta bai wa wannan hukuma Alhaji Abubakar Imam ya gudanar da azuzuwan ya?i da jahilci da kuma samar da littattafai don wa?annan azuzuwan. A ?angaren rubutun zube an sami littattafai  kamar su;

    1. Hali Zanen Dutse na Sarkin Musulmi Alhaji Abubakar na III
    2. Littatin Addini na Alhaji Halliru Binji
    3. Tarihin Fulani na Wazirin Sakkwato Alhaji Junaidu
    4. Littafin Mamaki na Abduliahi Makarfi
    5. Littafin Mafarki na Muntaka Kumasi
    6. Mutsi Ya Fl Zama na Malam Aminu Kano, da sauransu.

    NNPC

    Ita kuma wannan hukuma NNPC, wato “Northern Nigerian Publishing Company”. Daga cikin irin littattafan da kamfanin (NNPC) ya samar da farko-farkonsa akwai irin su:

    1. Nagari Na Kowa na Jabiru Abdullahi.
    2. Tauraruwa Mai Wutsiya na Umaru Dembo da sauransu.

    Bayan haka  hukumar (NNPC) ta sa gasa ta ?agaggun littattafai a cikin shekara ta (1981) inda ta buga uku daga cikin wa?anda suka yi nasara kamar haka:

    1. So Aljannar Duniya na Hafsatu Abdulwaheed
    2. Ahmadi Na Malam Amah, na Magaji ?anbatta
    3. Mallakin Zuciyata, na Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina.

    Kamfanin Gaskiya (1945)

    Shi kuma  ya buga littattafai na zube masu dama irin su:

    1. Ikon Allah na Dr. R.M. East da Alhaji Abubakar Imam,
    2. Kyaftin Makama na Abdulkadir Makama,
    3. Zamanin Nan Namu na EM. Rimmer da Ahmadu Ingawa,
    4. Bala Da Babiya na Nuhu Bamalli
    5. Mango Park Mabu?in Kwara na Alhaji Nuhu Bamalli
    6. Yawon Duniya Haji Baba Alhaji Abubakar Tunau Mafara ya (fassara)

    Haka kuma baya ga wa?annan kamfanoni da hukumomi an sami wallafe-wallafe da dama a cikin shekarun 1970, misali

    1. Littafin Abdullahi Ka’oje mai suna Dare ?aya wanda aka buga a (1973),
    2. Littafin Abdulkadir Dangambo mai suna Kitsen Rogo wanda aka buga a (1978) da dai sauransu.

    Hukumar Al’adu

    A cikin shekara ta (1982) Hukumar A1’adu ta Tarayya wato “Federal Department of Culture” ta yi ho??asa inda ta shirya gasa ta ?agaggun littattafai na Hausa inda ta buga wasu littattafan wa?anda suka yi nasara kamar baka:

    1. Turmin Danya na Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina.
    2. Tsumagiyar Kan Hanya na Musa Muhammad Bello.
    3. ?arshen Alewa Kasa na Bature Gagare.
    4. Za?i Naka na Munir Mamman Katsina.

    Baya ga wa?annan kuma a 1984 wata al’adar rubuce-rubuce na ?agaggun littattafai ta sake  kunno kai wadda aka sa wa suna “Adabin Kasuwar Kano” wadda a turance ake ?ira  “Kano Market Literature” An sami wani jigo na soyayya inda ya yi tasiri sosai da sosai a cikin wannan adabin. Daga cikin wa?anda suka share fage akwai irin su littafln:

    1. Rabin Raina littafi na ?aya (1984) na Talatu Wada Ahmed
    2. Soyayya Gamon Jini (1986) na Ibrahim Hamza Abdullahi
    3. In DaRai (1987) na Idris Imam
    4. Budu war Zuciya (1987) na Balanaba Ramat Yakubu
    5. Kogin Soyayya (1988) na AM. Zahraddeen
    6. Idan So Cuta Ne (l989) na Yusuf M. Adamu. (Muktar, 2002).

    Jerin littattafan ?agaggun labarai da sunan mawallafi da shekarar da aka wallafa

    Bayan wannan an sami mace a karon farko wacce ta yi fice a cikin rubutun adabi na Hausa inda ta rubuta ?agaggun Iittattafai a ?alla sama da guda ashirin (20) a cikin shekaru hu?u rak. Wannan kuwa ita ce uwargida Bilkisu Salisu Ahmed Funtuwa, wadda kafin ta yi aure ake ?ira Bilkisu Ibrahim Nabature Funtuwa. Ga wasu daga cikin irin wa?annan rubuce-rubuce nata kamar haka: 

    • Allura Cikin Ruwa, (1995) Gidan Dabino Publishers Kano,Nijeriya.
    • Sa’adatu Sa’ar Mata (b. kw)
    • Sirrin ?oye littafina 1-2(1996) City Publishers Jakara Kano,Nigenia
    • ?arya Fure Take littafina 1-2 (1996) NabilaSurayya Bookshop.
    • Gaskiya Na Mafa?inta littafi na 1-2 (1997) Printed
    • Kyan ?an Maciji littafi na 1-2 (1997) Printed
    • In Da Kwa?ayi littafi na 1-2 (1998).
    • Ki Yarda Da Ni (b. kw) littafi na 1-2
    • Maryamu (1999) littafi na 1-2
    • Mugun Zama (1999) littafi na 1-2 Anti Bilki Bookshop Kano.
    • Wa Ya San Gobe littafi ia 1-3 (1996) City Pulishers Jakara. Kano,Nijeriya.

    Kammalawa

    Wannan aiki da aka gabatar kan tarihin samuwar ?agaggun labarai na Hausa, bayan bincike da aka yi cikin wannan aikin an fahinci cewa, an samu ?agaggun labarai ne tun kafin zuwan Turawan mulkin mallaka da kuma bayan zuwansu, sannan binciken ya yi bayani kan yadda aka fara samun rubutu cikin Hausa ta wa?anda suka samar da shi. adabin zamani hanyoyin da ake bi wajen nazarin rubutacciyar waka

    Baya ga haka, an kawo ma’anar rubutun zube (?agaggen labari) da irin gwagwarmayar da maluma suka yi wajen ?o?arin tabbatar da shi. Daga ?arshen wannan aikin ne muka jero wasu littattafai na ?agaggun labarai na Hausa da sunan mawallafan da kuma shekarar da aka wallafa wannan littafin.

    Manazarta

    Mukhtar, I. (2002) Jagoran Nazarin ?agaggun Labarai. Zaria: Benchmark Publishers Limited.

    Gusau, S.M (2008) Dabarun Nazarin Adabin Hausa: Kaduna: Fisbas Media Service.

    Yahaya, I.Y. (1988) Hausa A Rubuce: Tarihin Rubuce-Rubuce Cikin Hausa: Ibadan: University Press Plc.

    Yahaya, I.Y. da wasu (1992) Darussan Hausa: Don Makarantun Sakandare 2. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

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