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Tarihin samuwar rubutatun ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa

  • Tsakure                                

    Wannan aikin da aka gudanar yana bayani ne kan Tarihin Samuwar Rubutatun ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa wadda ake masa laƙabi da Zube, wanda cikin aikin an yi ƙoƙarin kawo yadda aka fara samu rubutu a cikin Hausa har zuwa yadda aka fara samun ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa da yadda ya bunƙasa. Daga ƙarshe cikin wannan aiki ne kuma aka kawo jerin littattafan da aka samu da mutanen da suka yi ƙoƙari wajen samar da waɗannan littattafai da shekarun da aka wallafa su. To duk waɗannan abubuwa da aka lissafa ba haka kawai suka samu ba, sun samu ne ta hanyar bincike da aka yi a cikin littattafai da masana suka gabatar kan wannan batu. Dubi tarihin samuwar rubutun boko a kasar Hausa

    Gabatarwa

    Ƙagaggun labarai na ɗaya daga cikin rukunin adabin Hausawa na zamani, da masana adabin Hausa suka bayyana shi da “Zube”, wanda shi ne na farko a cikin rukunin, kafin waƙa da wasan kwaikwayo. (Yahaya da wasu, 1992).

    Shi ƙagaggen labari cike yake da zantukan hira da nishaɗi, wanda ba da gaske ya taɓa faruwa ba, saboda ana samar da shi ne kawai don nishaɗantarwa (Mukhtar, 2002).

    To amma dangane da tarihin samuwar ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa kuwa, yana da muhimmanci a fahinci mene ne rubutun zube, domin fahintar ma’anar ita ce ginshiƙin samar da tarihin samuwar rubutun zuben.

    Ma’anar rubutun zube

    Masana Adabin Hausa da al’adun Hausawa da dama sun yi ƙoƙarin bayyana ra’ayinsu dangane da abin da suka fahinta game da ma’anar Zube.

    Dangane da haka ne Magaji (1982) a wata takarda da ya gabatar mai suna ‘Tasirin Adabin Baka a Cikin Ƙagaggun Labarai’. Inda yake cewa, “Zube rubutun labari ne da mawallafi ya shirya da kah, sannan ya rubuta shi a zube”.

    Mukhtar (1985) shi kuma a cikin wata ƙasida mai suna ‘Yanayin Ƙagaggun Labarai na Hausa’ inda yake cewa “Zube wani irin zance ne wanda ake faɗansa da baka ko kuma a rubuce wanda yake bayyana yiwuwar wata al’amari, wanda zai iya faruwa a zahiri, amma bai faru ba, ko kuma ba zai taɓa faruwa ba”.

    Mukhtar, (2002) kuma cewa ya yi “Zube na nufin rubutun da ba waƙa ba, ba kuma wasan kwaikwayo ba. Idan an ce Zube ana nufin tsagwaron rubutu ne kai tsaye wanda aka yi shi cikin shafi ko shafuka da sakin tayi daban-daban, a rubuce ko a maganance, wato ta hanyar magana.”

    Shi kuma Sheihin Malamin nan Ibrahim Yaro Yahya. A wata ƙasida mai take ‘Ƙagaggun Labaran Hausa”. Inda yake cewa “Zube ƙagaggun labarai ne wanda ake shiryawa a kan waɗansu sharruɗa don bai wa jama’a abin samun hira da nishaɗi”.

    Shi kuma ‘Yar Adu’a (1996) a gudumawarsa day a bayar kan ma’anar zube cewa ya yi “Zube labari ne da a kan shirya cikin hikima da fasaha kuma a gudanar da shi don nuna ƙwarewa, wanda ya ƙunshi nuni da shiryawa ga wani abu na alkhairi ko kuma na sharri ko yakan iya zama na gaske ko na ƙarya”.

    To idan aka dubi waɗannan bayanai dangane da ma’anar zube zamu fahinci cewa shi zube labari ne da aka shira shi da kah kuma a zube don samun abin hira.

    Tarihin samuwar rubutun zube na Hausa

    Dangane da tarihin samuwar ƙagaggun labarai a Hausa, Mukhtar, (2002) cewa ya yi zube na Hausa ya samo asali ne ta hanyoyi guda biyu:

    • Ta hanyar addini wato rubutun zube ta hanyar Ajami, wato hanyar rubuta Hausa cikin haruffa na Larabci
    • Ta hanyar rubutun boko, wato ta amfani ba baƙaƙen abacada

    Rubutun Ajami

    Wannan hanya Hausawa ne suka ƙirƙiro abarsu tun asali ta hanyar rubuta sunaye na gargajiya a jikin fahami. Ta irin wannan hanya kuma manya-manyan malamai da manyan sarakuna sukan rubuta wasiƙu a tsakaninsu. Amma dangane da samun ƙagaggun labarai ciki, bincike ya nuna cewa an fi samun rubuce-rubucen Ajami na zube a cikin hanyar rubutu Magaribi, wato ba a faye samun rubutun Ajami da yawa a cikin rubutu na sharkiyya Irin rubuce-rubucen da aka samu cikin ajami tun wajen karni na 17 su ne irin rubuce-rubucen Malam Abdullahi Suka Kano da Wali Ɗanmasani a cikin Birnin Katsina da Malam Muhammadu na Birnin Gwari da dai sauransu. Amma dangane da ilmin Arabiya da samuvar Musulunci wannan tun wajen ƙarni na 9 ne, domin akwai alaƙa tsakanin ƙasashen Hausa da na Larabawa tun a wannan ƙarni. Har kwanan gobe Malaman zaure na ƙasar Hausa idan za su yi rubutu na zube a cikin rubutun Ajami suke ƙaddamar da shi. Haka kuma akwai jaridu da akan buga a cikin ajami kamar su: Albishir da Alfijir. Da sauransu.

    Samuwar rubutun boko

    Rubutun boko yana ɗaya daga cikin ire-iren rubutu na duniya da aka rattaba tsare-tsarensu, da wuraren da ake sarrafa su. Rubutun boko baƙaƙe ne da wasula a jere, waɗanda suka samo asali daga rubutun Latin. Kusan duk mutane ƙasashen turai kamar Ingila da Faranshi da Jamus da Portugal da sauransu, irin wannan hanyar rubutun suke sarrafawa a cikin dukkan makarantunsu da littattafansu da harkokinsu na sadarwa (Yahya, 1988:72)

    Samun labarai na wanzuwar wata sabuwar duniya a bangren Afirika ya sa turawa musammam na Portigal da na Jamus da na Faranshi da na Ingila sun tashi tsaye wajen nemo gano yanayin ciki da wajen Afirika. A cikin tafiye-tafiyen nasu wasunsu sun ziyarci garuruwan ƙasashen Hausa kamar su Kano da Sakkwato, sun kuma rubuta labarin rayuwar mutanensu.

    To amma dangane da tarihin samuwarsa kuma Mukhtar, (2002) ke cewa

    “Rubutun boko bai jima da zuwa ƙasar Hausa ba in aka kwatanta shi da rubutun ajami. Kafin a fara rubutu da Hausar boko a ƙasar Hausa, sai da aka daɗe ana amfani da ita a ƙasashen Turai. Amma mutumin da ake jin ya fara amfani da ita shi ne wani Baturen ƙasar Jamus mai suna James Frederick Schon wanda ya zo ƙasar Saliyo aikin Mishan a 1840. ya yi tunani ya kuma ƙirƙiro cewa ya kamata ya yi amfani da haruffan Latiniyya ya rubuta lafazin Hausa:

    Inda yake cewa cikin waƙa kamar haka:

    “na riya waɗannan ƙa’idojin rubutu

    a raina ne, bayan na yi shekaru ina

    lura da abubuwa. Saboda haka na

    yi amanna da dacewarsu”

    (Schon, 1862).

    Bayan da Schon ya yi niyyar amfani da haruffan Latiniyya ya rubuta Hausa, sai wani Bature mai suna Lepsius, ya ba shi shawarwari a kan yadda zai kyautata rubutun. An kuma sami Turawa waɗanda suka biyo irin wannan hanyar rubutu ta J.F. Schon kamar:

    1. Prietzer a (1904),
    2. Mischlich a (1906)
    • Westermann a (1911) da sauran waɗanda suka biyo baya.

    Mukhtar, (2002) ya ƙara da cewa Bayan wannan hanyar kuma “wata hanyar rubutu cikin boko da aka fito da ita, ita ce wadda Robinson (1896) ya fito da ita, kodayake Robinson shi ma Latinanci ya yi amfani da shi, sai dai shi ya ɗauki tsarin Ajami ne wajen sarrafa baƙaƙen da babu su a wasu harsuna. Misali /ɓ/ da /ƙ/ da /ɗ/ da sauransu, a hanyar rubutu ta Robinson waɗannan haruffan ɗigo ake musu a ƙasa irin na Ajami maimakon Ianƙwasa. Wato sai a rubuta su kamar baka:- b k d ba tare da tanƙwasa ba.

    A lokaci na farko da hukuma ta tsoma baki a kan rubutun zube shi ne lokacin mulkin mallaka a nan Nijeriya inda Hanns Vischer wanda ake ƙira Ɗan Hausa ya tsara ƙa’idojin yadda za a yi amfani da Hausar boko a (1910) sai dai shi ma ya yi amfani ne da hanyar Robinson inda yake sa ɗigo a ƙarƙashin harafi mai alhamza.

    Wata hanyar rubutun zube kuma ita ce wadda Bargery (I 934) ya yi anifani da ita; shi kuma waƙafi ya dinga sa wa bamzatattun baruffa maimakon ɗigo. Kamar baka:-

    ‘b      k’     ‘d      

    Hukumar Fassara ta Jihar Arewa ita ce ta fara ba da shawara a (1938) cewa ya kamata duk hamzatattun baƙaƙe a dinga Ianƙwasa su maimakon ɗigo ko waƙafi. (Yahaya, 1988).

    To, tun lokacin da Ɗan Hausa ya yi wannan ƙoƙari ba a sake samun wani yunƙuri ba domin kyauta rubutun Hausa sai a shekara ta 1955, lokacin da aka kafa ‘Hausa Language Board”, wato Hukumar Harshen Hausa, Sarkin Daura Muhammad Bashar ya nuna wa wannan hukumar gatanci. Ita wannan hukuma ta yi gyare-gyare a littafi mai suna Rules of  Hausa spelling, sannan, a ciki ta ba da shawarar cewa lamirin lokaci da kuma lamirin mutum kowanensu yana cin gashin kansa ne wato yana zaman kalma guda ne. to ba burin a ba ne na cigaba da kawo bayanai a kan yadda ake rubutun Hausa ba amma kuma zai yi kyau a san yadda aka fara rubutun, don shi ne jigon samuwar ƙagaggun littattafai na Hausa.

    Rubuta Ƙagaggun littattafai

    Tarihin rubuce-rubuce na ƙagaggun littattafai bai daɗe ba sosai idan an kwatanta shi da tarihin wanzuwar waƙoƙin baka da rubutattun waƙoƙi. Yayin da su waƙoƙi suka sami gatanci tun shigowar addinin Musulunci ƙasar Hausa, ake amfani da su wajen yaɗa addinin, su kuwa Ƙagaggun littattafai,  sai bayan da Turawa suka shigo ƙasashenmu na Afirka ta Yamma ne suka fara samuwa, A rubuce-rubucen Turawan farko waɗanda suka shigo bincike da yaɗa addinin Kirista, kamar su J,F. Schon, babu wani littafi da ya yi kama da ƙagaggun littafi (Novel) . Idan aka dubi yadda Yahya (1988:) ya kawo su kamar haka:

     Waɗannan su ne jerin littattafan da Schon J.F ya rubuta cikin Hausa. Amma littafin Schon na 1857 mai suna Farawa Letafen Magana Hausa, shi ne littafin Hausa na farko na zube cikin boko. To amma kuma duk cikin littattafan babu wanda ya yi kama da ƙagaggen labari wato (Novel) a ciki, sai dai bugun ƙarshe na (1886) wanda ya taɓo tatsuniyoyi. Littattafan yawanci jigonsu na yaɗa addinin Kinista ne.

    Wani nau’i na rubuce-rubuce cikin Hausa na zube bayan wanda Schon ya yi  su ne na Turawa ‘yan mulkin mallaka kamar haka:

    Yunƙuri da haɓaka samuwar ƙagaggaun littattafai na Hausa

    Bayan Turawa ‘yan mulkin mallaka sun yi waɗannan rubuce-rubucen a cikin zube na Hausa, sai kuma lokacin da aka kakkafa makarantun boko a Jihar Arewa. An kafa makarantar farko a lardin Sakkwato a 1905 a ƙarƙashin shugabancin wani Bature, Mr. Burden, to amma sai talakawa suka ƙi kai ‘ya’yansu don gudun kada ‘ya’yansu su zama Kirista, saboda haka sai aka rufe ta. Sai a 1909 Gwamna Lugard ya sa Mr. Harns Vischer wato (Ɗan Hausa) ya kuma buɗe wata makarantar a Kano. Lokacin da aka buɗe wannan makaranta ba a sami wani littafin koyar da Hausa ba sai Frank Edgar ya buga littafinsa mai suna Tatsuniyoyi na Hausa a (1911). Shi wannan littafi a Ingila aka buga shi sannan har zuwa 1920 ana amfani da shi wajen koyar da Hausa. A cikin wannan shekarar ne ta 1920, kuma aka kafa Hukumar Fassara wato ‘Translation Bureau’, wannan hukuma ta samar da littattafan karatu kamar haka: Alfu Laila Wa Laila, na Larabci zuwa Hausa wato Dare Dubu Da Ɗaya. Littafin ya ƙunshi hiƙayoyi ne na Larabawa, Sannan hukumar ta wallafa littattafai guda biyu; wato Labaran Hausawa Da Makwabtansu, wannan ya ƙunshi tarihin ƙasashen Hausa ne da yaƙe-yaƙen  da suka gudana tsakaninsu.

    Sai kuma Labaru Na Da Da Na Yanzu kuma ya ƙunshi sana’o’i da al’adu na Hausawa tare da tatsuniyoyi.(Mukhtar, 2002).

    Gasar samar da ƙagaggun littattafai na Hausa

    A cikin 1933 ne Daraktan Ilmi na jihar arewa, Hanns Visher ( Ɗan Hausa) ya ƙaddamar da wani shiri na gudanar da gasar rubuta ƙagaggun labarai don samar da littattafan hira na labarai na rubutun zube, sai aka ɗora nauyin gudanar da gasarga hukumar Talifi wanda Dr. East ya ke shugabanta. Nan da nan sai ya zagaya manyan garuruwa yana saduwa da malamai masu gaurayen ilmi zamani da na Arabiya yana yi musu bayanin irin littattafan da ake so su rubuta, bisa ƙa’idar cewa duk wanda ya ƙago wani labari a rubuce za a karɓa a shirya a buga domin a sami abin karantawa, kuma za a ba shi goro. Wannan bayani na Dr. East ya jawo hankalin malamai da dama suka wallafa littattafai suka aika domin shiga wannan gasar. Waɗanda suka yi nasara aka zaɓi labarun da suka rubuta su biyar ne kamar haka: yadda aka fara rubuta kagaggun littattafai na Hausa

    1. Malam Abubakar Imam ya rubuta Ruwan Bagaja
    2. Malam Bello Kagara ya rubuta Gandoki
    3. Malam Abubakar Tafawa Ɓalewa ya rubuta Shehu Umar
    4. Malam Muhammadu Gwarzo ya rubuta Idon Matambayi
    5. Malam Ahmadu Ingawa ya rubuta Ilya Ɗanmaiƙarfi

    Cikin waɗannan jerin littattafai, littafin Malam  Abubakar Imam Ruwan Bagaja ya ja hankalin masu gudanar da gasar suka kai ga neman ya zo zariya ya zauna yana aiki tare da su a hukumar Talifi. (Yahaya, 1988).

    Gudumawar Hukumomi da kamfanoni wajen samar da ƙagaggun littattafai na Hausa

    NORLA

    A cikin shekarar 1953 Gwamnatin Jihar Arewa ta kafa wannan Hukuma (NORLA) wato Northern Region Literature Agency, ta bai wa wannan hukuma Alhaji Abubakar Imam ya gudanar da azuzuwan yaƙi da jahilci da kuma samar da littattafai don waɗannan azuzuwan. A ɓangaren rubutun zube an sami littattafai  kamar su;

    1. Hali Zanen Dutse na Sarkin Musulmi Alhaji Abubakar na III
    2. Littatin Addini na Alhaji Halliru Binji
    3. Tarihin Fulani na Wazirin Sakkwato Alhaji Junaidu
    4. Littafin Mamaki na Abduliahi Makarfi
    5. Littafin Mafarki na Muntaka Kumasi
    6. Mutsi Ya Fl Zama na Malam Aminu Kano, da sauransu.

    NNPC

    Ita kuma wannan hukuma NNPC, wato “Northern Nigerian Publishing Company”. Daga cikin irin littattafan da kamfanin (NNPC) ya samar da farko-farkonsa akwai irin su:

    1. Nagari Na Kowa na Jabiru Abdullahi.
    2. Tauraruwa Mai Wutsiya na Umaru Dembo da sauransu.

    Bayan haka  hukumar (NNPC) ta sa gasa ta ƙagaggun littattafai a cikin shekara ta (1981) inda ta buga uku daga cikin waɗanda suka yi nasara kamar haka:

    1. So Aljannar Duniya na Hafsatu Abdulwaheed
    2. Ahmadi Na Malam Amah, na Magaji Ɗanbatta
    3. Mallakin Zuciyata, na Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina.

    Kamfanin Gaskiya (1945)

    Shi kuma  ya buga littattafai na zube masu dama irin su:

    1. Ikon Allah na Dr. R.M. East da Alhaji Abubakar Imam,
    2. Kyaftin Makama na Abdulkadir Makama,
    3. Zamanin Nan Namu na EM. Rimmer da Ahmadu Ingawa,
    4. Bala Da Babiya na Nuhu Bamalli
    5. Mango Park Mabuɗin Kwara na Alhaji Nuhu Bamalli
    6. Yawon Duniya Haji Baba Alhaji Abubakar Tunau Mafara ya (fassara)

    Haka kuma baya ga waɗannan kamfanoni da hukumomi an sami wallafe-wallafe da dama a cikin shekarun 1970, misali

    1. Littafin Abdullahi Ka’oje mai suna Dare Ɗaya wanda aka buga a (1973),
    2. Littafin Abdulkadir Dangambo mai suna Kitsen Rogo wanda aka buga a (1978) da dai sauransu.

    Hukumar Al’adu

    A cikin shekara ta (1982) Hukumar A1’adu ta Tarayya wato “Federal Department of Culture” ta yi hoɓɓasa inda ta shirya gasa ta ƙagaggun littattafai na Hausa inda ta buga wasu littattafan waɗanda suka yi nasara kamar baka:

    1. Turmin Danya na Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina.
    2. Tsumagiyar Kan Hanya na Musa Muhammad Bello.
    3. Ƙarshen Alewa Kasa na Bature Gagare.
    4. Zaɓi Naka na Munir Mamman Katsina.

    Baya ga waɗannan kuma a 1984 wata al’adar rubuce-rubuce na ƙagaggun littattafai ta sake  kunno kai wadda aka sa wa suna “Adabin Kasuwar Kano” wadda a turance ake ƙira  “Kano Market Literature” An sami wani jigo na soyayya inda ya yi tasiri sosai da sosai a cikin wannan adabin. Daga cikin waɗanda suka share fage akwai irin su littafln:

    1. Rabin Raina littafi na ɗaya (1984) na Talatu Wada Ahmed
    2. Soyayya Gamon Jini (1986) na Ibrahim Hamza Abdullahi
    3. In DaRai (1987) na Idris Imam
    4. Budu war Zuciya (1987) na Balanaba Ramat Yakubu
    5. Kogin Soyayya (1988) na AM. Zahraddeen
    6. Idan So Cuta Ne (l989) na Yusuf M. Adamu. (Muktar, 2002).

    Jerin littattafan ƙagaggun labarai da sunan mawallafi da shekarar da aka wallafa

    Bayan wannan an sami mace a karon farko wacce ta yi fice a cikin rubutun adabi na Hausa inda ta rubuta Ƙagaggun Iittattafai a ƙalla sama da guda ashirin (20) a cikin shekaru huɗu rak. Wannan kuwa ita ce uwargida Bilkisu Salisu Ahmed Funtuwa, wadda kafin ta yi aure ake ƙira Bilkisu Ibrahim Nabature Funtuwa. Ga wasu daga cikin irin waɗannan rubuce-rubuce nata kamar haka: 

    • Allura Cikin Ruwa, (1995) Gidan Dabino Publishers Kano,Nijeriya.
    • Sa’adatu Sa’ar Mata (b. kw)
    • Sirrin ɓoye littafina 1-2(1996) City Publishers Jakara Kano,Nigenia
    • Ƙarya Fure Take littafina 1-2 (1996) NabilaSurayya Bookshop.
    • Gaskiya Na Mafaɗinta littafi na 1-2 (1997) Printed
    • Kyan Ɗan Maciji littafi na 1-2 (1997) Printed
    • In Da Kwaɗayi littafi na 1-2 (1998).
    • Ki Yarda Da Ni (b. kw) littafi na 1-2
    • Maryamu (1999) littafi na 1-2
    • Mugun Zama (1999) littafi na 1-2 Anti Bilki Bookshop Kano.
    • Wa Ya San Gobe littafi ia 1-3 (1996) City Pulishers Jakara. Kano,Nijeriya.

    Kammalawa

    Wannan aiki da aka gabatar kan tarihin samuwar ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa, bayan bincike da aka yi cikin wannan aikin an fahinci cewa, an samu ƙagaggun labarai ne tun kafin zuwan Turawan mulkin mallaka da kuma bayan zuwansu, sannan binciken ya yi bayani kan yadda aka fara samun rubutu cikin Hausa ta waɗanda suka samar da shi. adabin zamani hanyoyin da ake bi wajen nazarin rubutacciyar waka

    Baya ga haka, an kawo ma’anar rubutun zube (ƙagaggen labari) da irin gwagwarmayar da maluma suka yi wajen ƙoƙarin tabbatar da shi. Daga ƙarshen wannan aikin ne muka jero wasu littattafai na ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa da sunan mawallafan da kuma shekarar da aka wallafa wannan littafin.

    Manazarta

    Mukhtar, I. (2002) Jagoran Nazarin Ƙagaggun Labarai. Zaria: Benchmark Publishers Limited.

    Gusau, S.M (2008) Dabarun Nazarin Adabin Hausa: Kaduna: Fisbas Media Service.

    Yahaya, I.Y. (1988) Hausa A Rubuce: Tarihin Rubuce-Rubuce Cikin Hausa: Ibadan: University Press Plc.

    Yahaya, I.Y. da wasu (1992) Darussan Hausa: Don Makarantun Sakandare 2. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

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