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Blogs » Harshe da Adabi » Nazarin littafin wasan kwaikwayo: Littafin wasan Marafa na Abubakar Tunau Mafara

Nazarin littafin wasan kwaikwayo: Littafin wasan Marafa na Abubakar Tunau Mafara

  • Gabatarwa

    Wasan kwaikwayo, kamar yadda sunan ya nuna, wasa ne da ake gina shi kan wani labari, ko wata matsala ta rayuwa da ake son nusarwa ga jama’a don ilmantar da su daga hanyar da ta dace da rayuwa, cikin siffar “yakini” wato zahiri. Abdulkadir Dangambo (1984:12). Dobi: Sababbin kalmomi da suka samu ta hanyar wasan kwallon kafa

    Nazarin wasan kwaikwayo ba sabon abu ba ne ga manazarta harshen Hausa, domin nazarinsa na sa a fahinci muhimmanci da illoli dake tattare da rayuwar al’umma ta yadda ake fito da hujjoji a fili yadda za a gane kuma a hankalta. To dangane da wannnan wasan da za a yi nazari akwai muhimman abubuwan da za yi la’akari da su cikin wannan aikin kamar haka:

    1. Zubi da tsarin littafi
    2. Jigon wasan ( sakon mawallafin)
    3. Warwarar jigo
    4. Kananan jigogi (wadanda suka taimaka wajen isar da sakon)
    5. Taurarin wasa fitattu
    6. Babban tauraru
    7. Mutanen da aka yi amfani dasu a cikin littafin
    8. Salon mawallafin
    9. Shiga da fitowa na wasa

    Zubi da tsarin littafi

    Wasan Marafa, wasa ne da aka shirya akan halin rayuwa a kauye, yadda mutanen ke shiga cikin matsaloli na harkokin rayuwa daban-daban kamar: cututtuka da kazanta, matsalar ruwan sha mai kyau, rashin wurin kwanciya mai kyau da tsabta. Marubucin ya tsara wasan ne cikin siga mai sauki inda ya raba wasan kashi biyu.

    A kashi na farko ya nuna ko ya bayyana irin matsalolin da mutanen kauye ke shiga a sakamakon rashin ilmi isasshe da suke da shi na yau, da kuma irin hadari da suke shiga a sakamakon wannan jahilci da suke da shi.

    A kashi na biyun kuwa, ganin cewa ya bayyana irin matsaloli da mutanen ke shiga a kashi na farko, sai marubucin ya bijiro da hikimar yadda za abi wajen magance wadannan matsalolin da ke addabar wadannan mutanen.

    Marubucin wannan littafin ya yi kokari ainun wajen daidaita carbin tunaninsa, domin cikin wannan wasan babu kwan-gaba-kwam-baya, ya tsara wasan cikin tsari mai kyau. Kalmomin aro sun yi tasiri cikin wannan wasan inda marubucin ya yi amfani da harshen Turanci domin isar da sakonsa. Cikin kalmomin aron akwai: dresa, yes,da kuma yadda ya kawo zance kamar haka:

    “Yes sa, Yes sa, Yes sa, look na one patient I kom now. Na guinea warm I de safer.” Haka kuma akwai

    “All right, all right, Yes, Yes, Yes. Where is my stethoscope,… come on your sanitary inspector and dresser.”

    Da kuma

    “here you are, sir” da dai sauran kalmomin aro.

    Haka kuma marubucin nan ya yi amfani da hoto cikin bayani, inda yake siffanta lokacin da Marafa yake zaune a kofar dakinsa da sauransu. Haka kuma marubucin bai yi amfani da babi-babi ba ko kan labari, ko kuma fita da shiga ba. Sai dai duk wani shiga yakan yi bayani kafin a fara.kuma ya yi amfani ne da mutane 22 cikin wannan wasan kamar yadda ya zo a cikin littafin.

    Kamar yadda muka gani a sama cewa a wasan kwaikwayo ana fito da illoli da kuma hanyar da za a bi wajen magance wannan matsalolin. Haka ma a wasan Marafa marubucin ya kasa wasan ne kashi 2 inda a farko ya bayyana matsalolin rayuwa a wannnan kauyen, kamar cututtuka, kazanta, yunwa da rashin samun isasshen ruwan sha mai tsabta. Sannan a bangare dayan kuma ya bayyana irin nasara da aka cimma.

    Jigon littafi

    Wannan littafi mai take “wasan Marafa” jigonsa shi ne ilmantarwa. Amma wannan ilmantarwar ta iya kasancewa ta hanyoyi daban-daban na rayuwar al’ummu. Wannan marubucin ya yi kokarin ya ilmantar da jama’a akan muhimmancin tsabta ga rayuwa mutane da kuma kore musu duhun kai akan abin da duk ya shige musu duhu.

    Warwarar jigo

    Akwai hujjoji da dama da za a kafa cikin wannan littafin don nuna tabbacin wannan a matsayin jigon wannan littafin. Kamar yadda muka gani cikin littafin inda aka ilmantar da shi Marafa da kuma iyalansa akan muhimmancin asibiti, da kuma nuna musu muhimmancin tsabta. Kamar yadda ya zo cikin littafin kamar haka:

    “Ayya, dattijo, sannu. Kwantar da ranka, babu komai sai alheri   gaskiya ne mu nan bamu fiye ciwo ba. Domin kuwa muna riga kafi ne. riga kafinmu kuwa shi ne tsabta. Amma yanzu zan taimake ka zan rubuta maka wasika in hada ka da yaro, ya kai ka wurin Malamin asibiti can za a iya maka magani. Malamin asibiti kuma abokina ne. saboda haka zan ce ya kula da kai, ya taimake ka a baka magani, ka ji ko, tsoho?” cewar Malamin makaranta (sh. 13).

    Haka kuma an sake nuna mhimmancin asibiti cikin wannan littafin kamar yadda ya zo a shafi na goma sha hudu (14) kamar haka:

    “Na ce maka wannan zancen ashararanci ne kawai. Mutanen banza wadanda da bas u san abin da dunitya ke ciki ba, wadansu kuma jahilci ne ke sa su fadi haka, saboda basu taba zuwa an warkar da su ba. Yanzu sai ka dakata in rubuta maka takarada zuwa ga Malamin asibitin, in kuma hada ka da yaro ku je tare. Shi Malamin shi zai nuna ka ga likita, ka ji baba?” (sh. 14).

    Idan aka sake duba cikin littafin za a tabbatar an nuna muhiommancin tsabta da ilmantarwa ciki kamar inda  Malamin asibiti yake cewa:

    “… sannu tsoho! Kash, kurkunu ne haka gare ka ko ina? Halama ba ka shan ruwa mai kyau?” (sh. 15).

    An sake nuna muhimmancin tsabta a cikin litafin, inda Malamin asibiti yake cewa kamar haka:

    “… likita ya ce in hada ka da wannan Malami wanda ake kira ‘duba gari’ wato mai kula da tsabtar gari da ta mutane duk da gidajensu. Za ku tafi tare da shi har gidanka ya duba. Sa’annan ka tara iyalanka, shi kuma zai gaya muku yadda zaku yi ku tsare lafiyar gidanku da lafiyarku dukkanku. Idan kuwa kun tsare irin abin da duk ya gaya muku, to, baza ku sake yin kurkunu ba. Kai, duk ma iyalanka babu wanda zai sake yin wata cuta wadda kazanta ke kawowa, wannan kurkunun kuwa ka warke shi ke nan, in Allah ya so ka ji ko?” (sh. 18)

    Kananan jigo

    Dangane da kananan jgogin wannan wasan kuwa akwai wadansu  muhimman abubuwan da suka yi tasiri cikin wannan wasan ko kuma wadanda suka taimaka wajen isar da babban sakon. Kadan daga cikin wadannan kuwa akwai: jahilci, taimako, da sauransu. Amma dun samun kyakkyawan madafa akwai hujjoji da aka kafa a cikin wannan littafin kamar haka: inda Marafa yake ce wa Malamin:

    “Ina malam? Haba malam! Yanzu ta yaya zaka ce a kai ni asibiti? Ko don ba ni na haife ka ba, ai dai na yi da da kai. Yaya zaka ce a kai ni inda za a cinye ni da sauran raina? Ai sai dai na koma gida da wannan kurkunun haka nan.” (sh. )

    Wannan na nuna man jahilci ke nan domin y ace asibiti ne wurin da ake cin mutane. Duk da haka Malamin makarantar nan bai tsaya haba ya ci gaba da fahimtar da shi muhimmancin asibiti don ya ja hankalinsa kuma ya cire ma sa wannan jahilcin amma Marafa bai fahimta ba sai ya kara da cewa

                                        “A’a malam, na ji an ce nasara na ci mutane”

    Haka dai wannan Malamin bai hakura ba sai da ya ja hankalin Marafa ya amince da zuwa asibitin amma duk da haka dai Marafa jahilcinsa na asibiti bai fita bay a bi maganar Malamin nan ne kawai amma bai gamsu ba. Sai ya kara da cewa

    “…. Mhm. Allah sarki! Dubi inda myutum ya kawo kansa ga mahalaka. Gani ina ji, ina gani da sauran karfi na za a halaka ni, a cinye ni, ba li ba la. Amma shi ke nan akwai Allah.”

    Wannan dai har yanzu yana nuna mana jahilci ne zalla na Marafa akan asibiti. Amma daga karshe Marafa da yatabbata ba cin mutanen ake yi ba jahilci ta fita ya sami lafiya sai ya ce

    “Allah sarki! Kaga, malam,  yanzu har gani ina iya dan takawa da karfi-karfi. Ashe dai karya ce da ake cewa nasara na cin mutane.”

    Daga karshe jahilci ta fita wa Marafa har shi ma ya je gida yana bayyana wa iyalansa kan cewa da ake yi nasara na cin mutane karya ce. Tun da dai ya je asibiti ya kuma ga amfanin asibiti. Dubi: Hanyoyin nazarin littafin kagaggun labarai

    Bayan an yaye wa Marafa da iyalansa jahilci da duhun kai game da asibiti. Daga karshe ya debi yaransa da matansa zuwa inda za a koya masu tsabta kana su fahimci illar kazanta da muhimmancin tsabta ga rayuwa. Ga kuma yadda ta kasance cikin littafin inda Marafa yake cewa

    “To, malam. Ke kumatau! Ina Fatse? Duk yaran nan ku zo mu tafi tare da ku, a koya mana tsaron lafiya.”

    Taurarin wasa

    Dangane da taurarin wasa da suka yi fice cikin wannan wasa mai take ‘Wasan Marafa’ su ne:

    1. Marafa. Wanda ma shi ne sunan wannan wasan. Kuma sunansa ne ya fi bayyana a cikin wannan wasan
    1. Malamin makaranta. Wannan shi ne na biyu cikin taurarin wannan wasan. Hakan kuwa ya biyo bayan yawaita da sunansa ya cikin wannan wasan ne kuma shi ma ya takja muhimmiyar rawa wajen nuna kokarinsa da hakuri don wayar wa Marafa kai a gameda muhimmanci asibiti. Kamar dai yadda ya zo cikin littafin kamar haka:

    “Ayya, dattijo, sannu. Kwantar da ranka, babu komai sai alheri   gaskiya ne mu nan bamu fiye ciwo ba. Domin kuwa muna riga kafi ne. riga kafinmu kuwa shi ne tsabta. Amma yanzu zan taimake ka zan rubuta maka wasika in hada ka da yaro, ya kai ka wurin Malamin asibiti can za a iya maka magani. Malamin asibiti kuma abokina ne. saboda haka zan ce ya kula da kai, ya taimake ka a baka magani, ka ji ko, tsoho?” cewar Malamin makaranta (sh. 13).

    Haka kuma cikin littafin dai inda Malamim makaranta ya ci gaba da wayar wa Marafa da kai kamar haka.

    “A’a, a’a, a’a, dattijo, subhana. Kada ka ce haka. Wannan ba haka ba ne! ko kadan asibiti ba a cin mutane …. Wannan maganan ashararanci ne.” (sh. 13-14)

    Babban taurarun wasa 

    Cikin wannan littafin mai take ‘Wasan Marafa’ a kwai mutane da dama da suka taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin wannan wasan, amma duk da haka mutum guda cikinsu shi ne ya fi kowa taka rawar gani, wato ‘marafa’ saboda wasu hujjoji da suka bayyana a cikin wannan littafin wannnan shi ne ya jaddada mana cewa wasan akan shi ne a ka yi. Haka kuma akwai tabbacin hakan a cikin littafin kamar yadda muka ce a baya wadda ya kara nuna mana cewa shi ne gwarzo ko Taurarun wasan. Kamar yadda marubucin ya bayyana cikin littafin kamar haka.

    “Wani mutumin kauye sunansa ‘Marafa’ yana zaune a kofar dakinsa. Matansa biyu, su Kumatau da Fatse suna cikin dakinsu, suna kadi. ‘Ya’yansu kuma su Ciyumu, da mairiga, da Yabani, suna tare da su.”

    Haka kuma, daga sunan wannan littafin ma ya nuna mana cewa Marafa ne gwarzon wasan domin sunan littafin kenan “wasan Marafa”. Kuma idan aka duba cikin wasan da sunansa aka fara bayani, kuma a karshen littafin shi ne ya yi Magana na karshe. Kamar haka:

    “To, Abarshi. Rika mini kwacciyar sirdi in hau. … Abarshi, ka cim mini can masallaci.”

    SUNAYEN ‘YAN WASA                MATASAYINSU A CIKIN LITTAFI

    1. Marafa                            =          Babban tauraru (mijin kumatau da fatse)
    2. Kumatau                         =          Matar Marafa
    3. Fatse                              =          Matar Marafa
    4. Citumu                            =          Dan Marafa
    5. Yabani                            =         Dan Marafa
    6. Boka                               =          Mai magani
    7. Mutanen gari                   =         
    8. Wani mutumin gari          =         
    9. Dan doka                        =          Mai tsaro da kiyaye lafiyar jama’a
    10. Malamin makaranta         =          Mai ba wa Marafa shawara kan lafiyarsa
    11. Ali                                  =          Dalibi
    12. Anaruwa                         =          Dalibi
    13. Yaro                            =          Dalibi
    14. Tanko                          =          Dalibi
    15. Wani yaro                    =          Dalibi
    16. Malamin asibiti            =          Mai aikacin asibiti
    17. Likita                           =          Mai aikacin asibiti
    18. Diresa                          =          Ma aikacin asibiti (mai shirya mara lafiya)
    19. Dubagari                     =          Malamin tsabta
    20. Abarshi                        =          Yaron gidan Marafa
    21. Maroka                        =          Masu yi wa Marafa kirari

    Wadannan su ne sunaye fitattu na cikin wannan wasan. Akwai kuma ‘yan jeka na yi ka, wato wadanda aka ambaci sunansu cikin wasan sai dai ba su fito cikin wasan ba harma su ce wani abu. Irin wadannan akwai: ‘Mairiga ‘yar Marafa’

    Salon mawallafin

    A cikin wannan littafin akwai salalla da suka yi tasiri, amma wanda ya fi karfafa, kuma mawallafin ya yi amfani da shi, shi ne salo mai ban sha’awa, saboda ya rubuta wasan ne a cikin harshe mai saukin fahinta, babu wasu kalmomi ko jimloli masu wahala ko wadanda za su bada ciwon kai wajen ganewa. Haka kuma marubucin ya yi amfani da salo mai armashi da karsashi ga mai nazari, saboda an yi amfani da al’adun Hausawa na asali, ba a cakuda su dab akin al’adu ba. Kuma an yi amfani da wuraren da suka dace da yanayin rayuwa ta gaske ta gargajiya, wato irin rayuwar kauye. Kamar yadda ya zo cikin littafin kamar haka:

    “Marafa! Hala ba za ku tafi gona ba yau? Ga shi har hantsi ya tako”

    “Baba, ku ta shi mu tafi gona, lokaci yayi, kada mu makara. Yau kuwa lalle sai mun kare duk gonakinmu.”

    Haka kuma an nuna al’adun gargajiya cikin salo mai sauki, kamar yadda aka nuna maroka ke kawo kirari wa Marafa wannan ma salo ne mai ban sha’awa saboda irin yanayin da Marafa ya shiga na halin wadata. Kamar yadda ya zo cikin littafin kamar haka:

    “Marafa dan Bahago! Marafa amanar likita! Na dubagari, na malaman makaranta, na Fatse gatan Kumatau, Magajin Citumu! Rago duniya ta bashe shi, bai dada komai ba! Ka sa mana riga da wando, da taguwa, da hula da rawani da takalma….”

    Wannan shi ne kadan daga cikin bayanin salon wannan littafin kenan.

    Shiga da fitowa na wasa

    Dangane da wannan wasan kamar yadda nazari da bincike ya nuna cikin wannan wasan akwai shiga goma sha uku ne (13) da kuma  fitowa (163)

    Kammalawa

    Dangane da wannan  littafin da aka nazarta mai take ‘wasan Marafa’ mun fahimci cewa wasan an gina shi ne musamman don irin halin rayuwa da mutane ke ciki, musamman mutanen kauye wadnda abin ya fi shafa gameda jahiltan asibiti domin samun tsaron lafiya da kulawa. Munga irin matsalolin da wadannan mutanen ke shiga ciki, daga karshe kuma munga yadda aka magance wadannan matsalolin ta hanyar ilmamtar dasu cikin sauki.

    Manazarta

    Dangambo A. (1984). Rabe-Raben Adabin Hausa da Muhimmancinsa ga Rayuwar Hausawa. Kamfanin “TRIUMPH” gidan Sa’adu Zungur Kano.

    Tunau A. (1949). Wasan Marafa. Northern Nigerian Publishing Company Ltd, Zaria.

    Yahya I.Y da wasu, (1992). Darussan Hausa Don manyan makarantun sakandare. University Press PLC.

    Mai karatu na iya duba: Adabi: Ginshikan gina wasan kwaikwayo

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