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Tarihin da gudummawar Noam Chomsky a fagen harshe

  • Noam Chomsky na daga cikin manya-manyan masana da wannan karni ko kuma wadanda duniya ke ikirari da su a halin yanzu. Makalarmu ta yau zata yi nazari ne bisa tarihinsa da kuma ire-iren ayyukan da ya gudanar kana har yanzu yake gudanarwa a fanninsa na ilmin harshe, wato linguistics

    An haifi Noam Chomsky a ranar 7/12/1928 a garin Pennsylvania na ?asar Amurka. Ya yi karatun digiri na ?aya B.A da na biyu M.A da na uku Ph.D a Jami’ar Pennsylvania na Amurka bai jima da fara aiki ba ya zama shaharraren Masani a ?angaren harshe wanda shahararsa ce ta sa ake masa la?abi da ‘Uban masana na ?angaren harshe na zamani’ sannan kuma shi jigo ne a fagen Falsafa wanda ya sadau?ar da duk lokutansa wajen neman ilmi. Hakan ta sa ya wallafa littattafai da adadinsu ya kai ?ari (100) wanda hakan ya sa aka ba shi lambar yabo tare da bayyana shi a matsyin jigo a ?angaren al’ada, kuma an za?e shi a sahun gaba cikin masana masu wallafe-wallafe a 2005.

    Gudummawar Noam Chomsky a fagen harshe 

    Kasancewar Chomsky masani ne a fagen harshe, kuma idan aka yi la’akari da irin tarihin rayuwarsa kama daga karatunsa zuwa rubuce-rubucensa za a fahinci cewa akwai gudummawar da ya ba da daman gaske ga al’umma musamman a ?angaren harshe wa?andaba za iya kididdige adadinsu ba amma an binciko wasu daga cikin irin gudummawar da ya ba da kamar haka:

    1. Ya fito da matakin ma’ana iri biyu (zurfafa abin da aka fa?a da kuma na farfajiya) wato “deep structure and surface structure” shi deep structure na nuni da abin da yake cikin zuciyar kowane mai amfani da harshe, sannan surface structure kuma ya shafi yadda sadarwa take gudana.
    2. Ya kuma nuna Banbanci da ke akwai tsakanin competence da performance wato (iyawa) da (aiwatarwa) ya ce competence (iyawa) na nufin muhimmin ilmi a harshe, shi kuma performance (yi/aiwatarwa) na nufin ainihin yadda harshe ke amfani a zahiri.
    3. Shi ya ?ir?iro da hanyar sabunta Nahawu wato (Transformation Generative Grammar) wanda a ka mayar zuwa Transformational Analysis ma’ana tsarin sabuntawa wanda ke bayyana tsarin jimla a harshe.
    4. Ya taimaka wajen fito da hanyar nazari da warware jimla a harshe da ake wa take da “Syntactic Analysis” daga cikin Government and Binding Theory Ya sake fito da ra’ayinsa na karyata cewa mutum na samun harshe ne ta kwaikwayo, a wurinsa abin da ya bayyana a fili wajen samun harshe wani abu ne da ya fi matsayin kwaikwayo.
    5. Ya yi aiki a ?angaren ilmin tsarin sauti da kuma ilmin sautin harshe wanda aka wa rajista cikin kundin ilmin sautin harshe.

    Ayyuka da Noam Chomsky ya gudanar a fannin ilmin harshe har ma da sauran fannoni irin su siyasa baza su tattaunu a wannan yar karamar makala tawa ba, don haka zan dakata anan, kuma in Allah Ya so zan kawo muku cigaban wannan aiki a wata makalar.

    Sai dai kuna iya karanta wasu makalu irin wadannan da suka rigaya suka gabata game da tarihi da gudummawar masana harshe, misali, tarihin Kenneth Lee Pike wanda shima masanin harshe ne da kuma tarihin Leonard Bloomfield har ma da Ferdinand de Saussure. Akwai yan mazhabar Prague suma sun bada gudummawa mai yawa a fagen ilmin harshe.

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