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Gudummawar Mazhabar Prague (the Prague School) a fagen ilmin harsuna

  • Mazhabar Prague (the Prague school) Wannan mazhaba ce da aka ƙirƙira a shekara 1926 a Café Derby na Prague da niyyar haɓaka harshe domin muhimmancinsa. Wannan mazhaba ta haɗa manyan masana harsuna. Daga cikin hanyoyin da suka tsara wajen gudanar da ayyukansu akwai na tsarinci na li’irabin abin da ya shafi adabi (Structuralist literary analysis) da kuma ra’in daidaitaccen harshe (the theory of the standard language) a shekarar 1928-1939.

    Daga cikin manbobinta da suka taimaka a wannan mazhaba akwai: Vilem Mathesius (1882-1945) da Roman Jacobson (1896-1982) da Prince Nikolai S. Trubetzkoy (1890-1938) da Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) da J. R Firth (1890-1960) da M.A.K Halliday da R.A Hudson da sauransu. To waɗannan su ne masana a wannan mazhabar kuma sun ƙoƙarta wajen ɗaga martabar harshe.

    Gudummawar Mazhabar Prague a fagen ilmin harsuna

    Taruwar waɗannan mutane wuri guda ba zai yi a banza ba, dole ne a samu sun taimaka wanda kuwa shi ne kudurinsu ta farko a cikin zuciyarsu. Amma babban kudurinsu shi ne: ɗabbaka ayyukan masu aƙidar tsarin bai-ɗaya tare da la’akari da ayyukan shaihin malami Ferdinand de Saussure. Ayyukansu na farko ya taɓo ilmin sautin harshe (phonology) ne wanda tunanin Trubetzkoy ne na kwatanci sauti ya samar da bambanci tsakanin ilmin tsarin sauti (phonetics) da kuma ilmin sautin harshe (phonology). Ya kuma ƙirƙiro da wasu tsarin bambance su wanda Jacobson ya yi gyra a kai daga baya kuma Halle da Noam Chomsky suka yi nasu gyarar a fannin ilmin sautin harshe.

    Haka kuma sun ƙara fito da wata hanya da ta shafi tsarin gaɓa (syllable structure) da karin sauti (tone) da rausayar murya (intonation) da yanayin murya (Suprasegmental Features) da kuma ilmin ginin kalma (morphology) da kuma tsarin ilmin sautin harshe da kalma (Morphophonology) da sauransu.

    Waɗannan kadan ke nan daga cikin ayyuka da gudummawar da waɗannan masana suka bayar a fagen ilmi musamman ma abin da ya shafi harshe.

    Kuna iya duba irin gudummawa da ayyuka irin wadannan na wasu daga cikin masana ilmin harsuna kamar su,  Kenneth Lee Pike, da Leonard Bloomfield, da Ferdinand de Saussure da Noam Chomsky da kuma Pāṇini

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