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5G Network

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Fasahar ”5G” (Fifth Generation Network) na nufin zango na biyar na wayar hannu. Ana siffanta wannan zango da kasancewa mafi sauri da kwanciyar hankali fiye da waɗanda suka gabace shi, kamar ”4G”, “3G” da kuma “2G”. Babban alfanun da 5G ke bayarwa shi ne tsananin girman ƙarfin da yake da shi don tallafa wa ɗimbin kwararar bayanai da ke isa wayoyinmu.

Ɗaya daga cikin mahimman buƙatun da wayoyi dole ne su cika a yau shine samun fasahar “5G”. Wannan zai taimaka wajen yadda ake mu’amala da intanet cikin inganci.

Fasahar sadarwa ta 5G Network na fuskantar kalubalen tsaro

Samuwar fasahar “5G”

Fasahar “5G” tsarin sadarwa ne na zamani mai dauke da hanyoyin sadarwar wayar salula da fasahar intanet waɗanda suka ɗara hanyoyin sadarwar salula na hudu, wato: “4G – LTE”.  Duk da cewa an fara tunanin samar da wannan fasaha ne tun shekarar 2009, amma a aikace, kasashe da wasu kamfanoni sun fara gwajin fasahar ne cikin shekarar 2019. Ƙasashen sun haɗa da ƙasar Koriya ta Kudu (South Korea), da Amurka da sauransu, sai kamfanoni irin su Huawei da sauran makamantansu.

Daga cikin jerin fasahohin tsarin sadarwa na wayar salula a tarihi, wannan ita ce fasaha ta biyar. Shi ne ma dalilin kiran fasahar da suna: “5th Generation” ko “5G” a taƙaice. Wannan tsari dai ba wata ƙasa ce ko wani kamfanin sadarwa shi kaɗai ko ita kaɗai suka ɗauki nauyin aiwatar da shi ba. Haɗakar ce ta kungiyoyin sadarwar zamani, babu ma wata ƙasa daga cikin ƙasashen duniya a cikinsu, da suke zaman a musamman don yin nazari da tunanin nakasar da ke tattare da tsarin dake gudanuwa, da ƙoƙarin samar da hanyoyin inganta shi. Babbar hukumar dake lura da aikin wannan ƙungiya ta haɗaka dai ita ce ƙungiyar daidaita ƙa’idoji da bunƙasa tsarin sadarwar tarho ta duniya, wato: “International Telecommunication Union” ko (ITU).

Ƙoƙarin samar ɗan wannan sabon tsari na sadarwa dai ya biyo bayan nazari da aka yi kan tsarin fasahar ta hudu, wato, “4G – LTE”.  Daga cikin abubuwan da aka lura da su kuwa akwai ‘yar tazarar tsaiko da ke samuwa tsakanin lokacin da sako ya baro inda aka aiko shi, zuwa inda za a karɓe shi. Wannan tsari shi ake kira “Latency” a harshen fasahar sadarwa. Sannan an lura tsarin 4G bai jure nauyin aiwatar da sadarwa tsakanin adadin kayayyakin sadarwa masu ɗimbin yawa a wuri daya.

A wannan zamani da muke ciki, a duk yini ana tara bayanai masu ɗimbin yawa a giza-gizan sadarwa, tsakanin mutane, da kamfanoni, da hukumomin gwamnatocin ƙasashe da kuma ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu. Sarrafa waɗannan bayanai don samun fa’ida da hasashen ci gaban rayuwa nan gaba, abu ne mai wahala ƙarƙashin tsarin sadarwa na 4G. Wannan ya sa aka tsara ka’idojin sadarwa na 5G wacce cikin sauki za a iya sarrafa waɗannan dandazon bayanai, tare da aikawa da karbar su ta wata fuska, cikin sauki.

Siffofin Fasahar “5G”

1. Ƙarfi

Fasahar “5G” na dauke ne da tsarin sadarwa mai karfin gaske, wajen daukae adadi mai yawa na na’urorin sadarwa a lokaci guda, a wuri guda, kuma ta hanya daya. Misali, idan fasahar “4G” na ba wa mutum 100 damar aikawa da karɓar saƙonni a lokaci guda, to, fasahar “5G”  za ta iya riɓanya wannan adadi sau ɗari biyu tsaron idan aka kwatanta da tsarin fasahar “4G” cikin yanayi da karfin sadarwar’. Watau a tsarin fasahar “5G”, adadin na’urorin sadarwa na iya karba da aika sako a lokaci guda ba tare jinkiri ba.

Babban alfanun fasahar sadarwa 5G shi ne sauri da karfi

2. Rashin tsaiko

Fasahar “5G” babu tsaiko wajen aiwatar da sadarwa. Abin da wannan ke nufi shi ne, a tsarin sadarwa, idan kana sauraron shirin gidan rediyo, ko kallon shirin talabijin, ko sauraren wasu bayanai na sauti kai tsaye daga wani gidan yanar sadarwa ta Intanet, akwai ‘yar tazarar lokaci tsakanin sadda wayarka ko kwamfutarka ta karbo sakon, daga kwamfutar dake dauke da bayanan ko inda ake shirya shirin, zuwa lokacin da wayarka ko kwamfutarka za a jiyar da kai ko nuna maka sakon da ta dauko. Haka ma a tsarin wayar salula akwai wannan yanayi.

Idan ka kira mutumin dake kasar Saudiyya ta wayar salula, akwai ‘yar rata dake samuwa tsakanin sadda yayi magana da lokacin da ka ji maganarsa. Kana iya gane hakan ne ta hanyar jin yayi shiru, bayan ka gama naka zancen, a lokacin sakon muryarka bata kai gare shi ba. Sai sakon ya isa gare shi, sai kaji ya fara baka amsa. A tsarin sadarwa na fasahar “5G”, babu wannan jinkiri ko tsaikon da ake samu tsakanin karba da isar da sako tsakanin na’urori da hanyoyin sadarwa.

3. Sauri

Tsarin fasahar “5G”  na isar da bayanai masu dimbin yawa cikin daƙiƙa guda. A gwajin fasahar “5G” da kamfanin wayar salula na MTN da ke Najeriya yabyi a shekarar 2019 a Abuja, an saukar da bidiyo mai nauyin gigabyte 2.3 cikin daƙiƙu (15.78). Da aka saukar da bidiyon a tsarin “4G” kuma, sai da ya dauki tsawon minti (5.3). Wannan a gwaji kenan, kuma a kadadar sadarwa ta kasa, mafi karancin kuzari. Amma idan aka gama tsara komai, ta amfani da waya mai dauke da tsarin fasahar “5G”, wayarka ko kwamfutarka na iya saukar da bayanin da mizaninsa ya kai gigabyte 1 cikin dakika guda.

4. Yawan hanyoyi

Fasahar “5G” na dauke ne da hanyoyi da tsarin sadarwa tsakanin kayayyaki da na’urorin sadarwa daban-daban, wadanda a al’adance ba a sansu da wani tsari na aiwatar da sadarwa ba. Misali, karkashin tsarin fasahar “5G”, motocin lantarki marasa direba (Driverless Cars) suna iya musayar bayanai tsakaninsu a ko’ina suke, don gano bigire da tazarar ‘yar uwarta. Na’urori a asibitoci da manya da kananan makarantu na iya aiwatar da sadarwa tsakaninsu. Haka kananan na’urori da ake kira: “Internet of Things” ko “IoT” duk suna iya amfani da fasahar Intanet don aiwatar da dasarwa.

Sauyawa daga 4G zuwa 5G zai kasance mai tsada sosai

Ƙalubalen fasahar “5G”

• Saurin da aka yi alkawarinsa na fasahar “5G” yana da wuyar cimmawa idan aka yi la’akari da cigaban fasaha a sassa da yawa na duniya.

• Yawancin tsoffin na’urorin da ba sa kan tsarin fasahar ‘5G” za a buƙaci a maye gurbinsu.

• Fasahar 5G na iya haifar da matsalolin da ba zato ba tsammani ga na’urorin da suka dogara da tsohuwar hanyar sadarwar fasahar 3G.

• Sauyawa daga 4G zuwa 5G zai kasance mai tsada sosai.

• Fasahar “5G” na fuskantar kalubalen tsaro na cibiyar sadarwa.

Manazarta

Sadik, B., & Sadik, B. (2021, May 20). Fasahar 5G: Ma’ana da Asalin Fasahar 5G. Taskar Baban Sadik.

Acosta, A. (2024, February 2). Ta yaya zan san idan wayar hannu ta 5G ce a cikin ’yan matakai? AndroidAyuda.

Ericsson (2024, April 29). What is 5G? How will it transform our world? Ericsson

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