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Cutar sikila

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Ma’anar cutar sikila

Cutar sikila tana nufin mutum yana ɗauke da sinadaran haemoglobin guda biyu marasa kyau (ba lafiyayyu ba) a jikinsa. Ma’ana dai ya gaji gurɓatattun sinadaren haemoglobin daga wurin mahaifiya da mahaifi.

Cutar sikila tana ɗaya daga cikin cututtukan da ake iya kauce musu kafin samuwar su. Idan kuma cutar ta samu, to tana da wahalar magani. Haka ma cutar sikila ko amosanin jini na ɗaya daga cikin cututtukan da za a iya cewa na neman zama ruwan dare, saboda yadda ake yawan samun yin aure tsakanin masu rukunin jini AS da AS ko SS da AS. Sannan larurar amosanin jini, wato sickle cell anaemia, mugun ciwo ne. Larura ce da ke raunata mai fama da ita har ma da iyalan mai fama da ita, da al’umma bakiɗaya.

Ƙwayoyin halittar jini

Kamar yadda aka sani, an ware ranar 19 ga watan Yunin kowace shekara a matsayin ranar yaƙi da cutar amosanin jini wato sikila a duniya. Rana ce da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ware domin faɗakar da al’umma kan wannan cutar a matakin ƙasa da kuma na ƙasa da ƙasa.

Najeriya ta fi yawan masu cutar a duniya. Bincike ya nuna cewa duk shekara ana haifar jarirai 300,000 a duniya kuma rabi daga wannan yawan a Najeriya ake haifar su. Daga cikin 150,000 na Najeriya ɗin nan 100,000 ne ke mutuwa duk shekara.

Sannan alƙaluma sun nuna cewa mafi yawan masu cutar suna Arewacin kasar ne. Masana kiwon lafiya sun yi amanna cewar rashin yin gwajin jini kafin aure yana taka rawa sosai wajen haifar yara masu ɗauke da cutar sikila a kasar.

Yadda ake samun cutar sikila

Ana samun cutar sikila ne daga wurin iyaye (uwa da uba). Uba shi kaɗai ba zai iya haifar ɗa/’ya mai sickler ba haka ma uwa ita kaɗai ba za ta iya haifar ɗa/’ya mai sikila ba. Dole sai da gudunmawar kowanne daga cikinsu (uwa da uba).

Ko wane mutum yana da sinadaren haemoglobin a jikinsa nau’i biyu. Wannan maƙala za ta yi magana a kan haemoglobin A da kuma haemoglobin S kawai saboda su ne suka fi yawa. kowane mutum yana da ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan Haemoglobin ɗin:

  •  Haemoglobin AA (HbAA)
  • Haemoglobin AS (HbAS)
  • Haemoglobin SS (AbSS)
  1. Wanda yake da HbAA yana da lafiyayyun haemoglobin guda biyu.
  2. Mai HbAS yana da lafiyayyen Haemoglobin guda ɗaya da kuma wanda ba lafiyayye ba (ba mai kyan ba) guda ɗaya.
  3. Mai HbSS yana da haemoglobin guda biyu marasa kyau.
  4. Mai HbAA lafiya ƙalau yake. Ma’ana ba shi da ciwon sikila.
  5. Mai HbAS shi ma lafiya ƙalau yake, ba shi da ciwon sickler amma zai iya haifar ɗa/’ya mai sickler idan ya auri mai HbAS. Don haka, HbAS shi ake kira da ‘carrier’

Mai HbSS, shi ne yake da ciwon sikila.

Lokacin da za a halicci mutum a cikin mahaifiyarsa, uwa tana ba da gudunmawar haemoglobin guda ɗaya, sannan uba ma yana ba da gudunmawar haemoglobin guda ɗaya. Kuma idan uba ya ba da gudunmawar haemoglobin maras kyau (HbS) sannan uwa ma ta ba da gudunmawar haemoglobin maras kyau (HbS), to tabbas ɗan da za a haifa zai kasance sikila ne (HbSS).

Yadda za ta kasance idan aka yi aure.

Iyaye (uwa da uba)           Yanayin ‘Ya’Ya

AA da AA =                        AA a kowane Lokaci
AA da AS =                        AA, ko Kuma = AS
AS da AS =                        AA ko AS ko = SS
AS da SS =                        AS ko kuma = SS
SS da SS =                        SS a kowane lokaci
AA da SS =                       AS a kowane lokaci

Don haka, idan ana so a kauce wa cutar sikila, to kada a yi aure tsakanin; ‘AS’ da ‘AS’, ‘AS’ da ‘SS’, ‘SS’ da ‘SS’.

Ana gadon cutar sikila ne daga iyaye guda biyu

Alamomin cutar sikila

Alamomin cutar sikila na bayyana ne tun yaro yana ƙarami a mafi yawancin lokaci wanda suka haɗa da;

  • Kumburin ‘yanyatsu
  • Ciwon ƙashi mai tsanani
  • Dashewar jiki (ƙarancin jinni)
    Ƙanƙantar jiki da sauransu.

Illolin cutar sikila

Cutar sickler na haifar da illoli daban-daban kamar haka:

  • Yawan rashin lafiya akai-akai kamar ciwon ƙashi, ƙirji, ciki da sauransu
  • Shanyewar ɓarin jiki (stroke)
  • Ciwon ƙoda
  • Rashin zuwa makaranta ko kuma yawan tangarɗar karatu
  • Yawan ƙarancin jini
  • Shaye-shaye
  • Saurin mutuwa (mutuwa lokacin ƙuruciya da sauransu)

Wasu ƙarin illolin cutar

Zafin ciwo: Tsananin zafin ciwon kwankwaso da masu cutar kan yi fama da shi lokaci zuwa lokaci yana matuƙar ta’azzara musu. Ƙwararru a harkar lafiya sun ce zafinsa ya fi na naƙuda. Suna jin ciwon ƙashi kamar ana kwankwatsa shi, jini ba ya isa wasu wuraren don haka idan suka taru a waje ɗaya sai su saka ciwo.

Raunin jima’i: Wannan ciwo bai bar masu shi ta ɓangaren shafar lafiyar jima’insu ba. Ciwo ne da ke hana su rawar gaban hantsi sosai a wasu lokutan ta wannan fanni. Ga maza dai yawanci, ƙwayoyin jini na maƙalewa a gabansu sai jinin ya ƙi fita ya taru a wajen, sai al’aurarsu ta miƙe ta ƙi sauka. A wasu lokutan har sai an yi ‘yar ƙaramar tiyata, wasu kuma da an sanya kankara sai ta taimaka wajen kwantar da gaban.

Yin kuka: Tsananin zafin da ciwon ke zuwa da shi kan sa masu yin sa su dinga gurzar kuka tare da gunji da gurnani. A irin wannan yanayi babu babba babu yaro za a ga sun fita hayyancinsu.

Karaya: Daga cikin wasu abubuwan mamaki dangane da wannan ciwo shi ne yadda a wasu lokutan sai ƙashin wata gaɓa ta jikin masu ciwon ya karye ɓal. Ba komai ke jawo hakan ba sai tsabar zafin ciwon da ke taso musu. Saboda ciwon sikila yana saka rashin lafiya akai-akai.

Maganin cutar sikila

Babban maganin ciwon sickler shi ne kada ayi aure idan akwai yiwuwar a haifi ɗa mai sikila. Kuma ana iya gane haka ta hanyar yin gwajin genotype. Amma idan ciwon ya samu, to hanya ɗaya ce wadda ake iya maganin wannan cuta. Wannan hanya ita ce dashen ɓargo (Bone marrow transplant), shi wannan dashen ɓargo yana tare da irin tasa matsalolin kuma ba kowane lokaci ake yin nasarar warkewa ba. Sannan kuma yana da tsada matuƙa da gaske. Sannan ana ba wa masu sikila wasu magunguna domin samun sauƙin rashin lafiya akai-akai. Shi ya sa ake so masu sikila su dinga zuwa wajen likita lokaci zuwa lokaci ko da babu abin da suke ji na rashin lafiya.

Nau’in abincin masu cutar sikila

Wasu magunguna da ke taimaka wa masu cutar sikila

Masu fama da cutar sikila suna fara shan wasu magunguna tun daga lokacin da aka gano suna ɗauke da cutar har zuwa ƙarshen rayuwarsu. Daga cikin magungunan akwai:

‘Folic Acid’ wanda yake ƙara musu jini, saboda ƙwayoyin jininsu na yawan ƙarewa.

‘Paludrine’ magani ne da ke kare su daga kamuwa da cutar maleriya don tana wahalar da su sosai idan suka kamu.

‘Peniciillin V’ shi kuma aikinsa shi ne kare su daga cututtuka masu alaƙa da numfashi.

‘Hydroxyurea’ wanda yake taimaka wa kwayoyin jinin siffarsu ta zama mai kyau, yake kuma taimaka musu wajen rage tashin ciwon. Amma yawanci shi sai wanda ciwon ke masa tsanani.

Yawan shan ruwa abu ne mai matuƙar muhimmanci ga masu cutar sikila saboda rashin ruwa yana tayar musu da ciwon kwankwaso da na gaɓoɓi. Sannan shan ruwan yana sa jini ya dinga gudu yadda ya kamata kuma ƙwayoyin jini su dinga wucewa cikin jiyoyi, wanda haka ke hana ciwon yawan tashi.

Abubuwan da cutar ba ta so

  • Zafi mai tsanani.
  • Zazzaɓi (ko na malaria ko kuma wani abu daban.
  • Motsa jiki mai yawa
  • Ɓacin rai. Da sauransu

Ƙarin bayani

Jini wanda ake gani a zahiri idan mutum ya ji ciwo ko kuma ya yanke jikinsa, yana ɗauke da abubuwa iri daban-daban, kamar su plasma, Red Blood Cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBCs), Platelets da sauransu. Haka ma cutar sikila tana faruwa ne idan aka samu matsala a RBC.

RBC yana ɗauke da sinadarin ‘Haemoglobin (HB) a cikinsa. Haemoglobin (HB) kala-kala ne; akwai Haemoglobin A (HBA), Haemoglobin B(HBB), Haemoglobin C (HBC), da sauransu. HBA shi ne lafiyayyen haemoglobin. Sauran HB ɗin ba lafiyayyu ba ne.

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