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Ebola

Cutar Ebola na ɗaya daga cikin manya-manyan cututtuka da suka addabi al’ummar wannan zamani. Ƙwayoyin cutar na Ebola (EVD) ko Cutar zazzaɓin jini ta Ebola (EHF) cuta ce ta ɗan’adam wadda kwayoyin cuta na Ebola ke haifarwa. Alamomin cutar kan fara bayyana daga kwanaki biyu zuwa mako uku daga kamuwa da ƙwayoyin cutar, wanda kan fara da zazzaɓi, zafin maƙogwaro, ciwon nama, da ciwon kai. Bayan nan sai tashin zuciya, amai, da gudawa tare da raguwar aikin hanta da ƙoda. Yayin da cutar ta kai wannan matakin, wasu mutanen kan fuskanci matsalar zubar da jini.

Ƙwayoyin cutar Ebola

Aƙalla mutane sama da 1,850 aka samu da kwayar cutar tun da aka gano ta shekaru 36 da su ka wuce a kasar Jamhuriyar demokradiyar Kwango. Sannan, mutane 1,200 daga cikinsu sun mutu, kamar yadda wani rahoton kwamitin kiwon lafiya na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ya bayyana.

Asalin cutar Ebola

An sa wa cutar laƙabin cutar Ebola ne daga wani rafi da ke ƙasar Kwango, ana kuma samun ta ne daga namun daji waɗanda suka kamu da cutar irin su Birrai, Kemagu, da Gada ko suna mace ko a raye.

An fara gano ƙwayar cutar EVD ne a Sudan da Jamhuriyar Dimokuraɗiyyar Kwango. An fi samun ɓarkewar cutar a yankuna masu zafi na kusa da Hamadar Afirka. Wani bincike ya nuna cewa, farawa daga shekarar 1976 zuwa shekara ta 2013, ƙasa da mutane 1,000 ne suka kamu da cutar. Ɓarkewa cutar mafi girma da aka samu har zuwa yau ita ce wadda aka samu a Yammacin Afirka na shekara ta 2014, wanda ya shafi Guinea, Sierra Leone, Laberiya da kuma Najeriya.

Yadda cutar ke yaɗuwa

Masana harkar lafiya sun bayyana cewa, ƙwayoyin cutar kan ɗauki tsawon kwana biyu zuwa makonni uku kafin su ƙyanƙyashe, kuma kula da waɗanda suka kamu da cutar yana da matukar haɗari domin mutum na iya kamuwa da cutar. Cutar Ebola na yaɗuwa a tsakanin mutane ne ta hanyar ta’ammali da dabbobin da suka kamu da cutar irinsu gwaggon biri da jemage har ma da gada. Daga cikin hanyoyin da cutar ke bi wurin yaɗuwa akwai:

  • Cuɗanya ta kai tsaye da wanda ke da cutar.
  • Amfani da abubuwan da mai cutar ya taɓa, inda ya zauna ko ya kwanta.
  • Dabbobi masu ɗauke da cutar kamar su jemagu, birrai da sauransu.

Da zarar ɗan’adam ya kamu, to sauran jama’ar da ke mu’amala da shi na iya kamuwa. Maza waɗanda su ka warke daga cutar na iya yaɗata ta hanyar maniyyi har tsawon kusan wata biyu.

Asalin cutar Ebola daga jikin Birrai da jemagu take

Illolin cutar Ebola

Cutar Ebola dai na daga cikin irin cutukan da ke saurin hallaka mutanen da ke ɗauke da ita. Wasu lokutan takan kashe tsakanin mutum 50% da 90% na waɗanda suka kamu da ƙwayoyin cutar. Daga cikin manya-manyan illolin cutar akwai:

  • Saurin hallakar da masu cutar.
  • Saurin yaɗuwa.
  • Rashin tsayayyen magani ko riga-kafi.
  • Ana iya kamuwa da cutar ta hanyar saduwa, jini ko miyau wanda hakan ya sa cutar ta zamo ɗaya daga cikin cututtuka da ke da matuƙar haɗarin gaske.
  • Ɓarkewar cutar ka iya kawo killace masu ɗauke da ita, sa dokar kulle da hana zirga-zirga wa mutanen da ta ɓulla a tsakanin su.
  • Tsoro da firgici.
  • Ma’ailatan da ke kula da masu ita suna cikin haɗarin kamuwa da cutar.
  • Saboda ƙarancin riga-kafi ko tsayayyen maganin cutar, hakan ya sa babu wani shiri ko tanadi mai tasiri da wata ƙasa za ta yi domin tunkarar cutar kafin ɓullarta ko kuma da zarar ta ɓulla.

Magani, kariya da riga-kafi

A yanzu haka babu wani sanannen maganin cutar Ebola kuma babu rigakafinta. Amma za’a iya taimakawa mai ɗauke da cutar ta hanyar ɗura masa ruwan gishiri da sukari (ruwa mai gishiri-gishiri da sukari-sukari domin sha) ko ta hanyar ƙarin ruwa a jijiyar jini.

Kwararru a ɓangaren kiwon lafiya sun bayyana cewa, ɗaya daga cikin hanyoyin da ake rage yaɗuwar cutar shi ne ganin cewa ta na kashe wanda ta kama nan da nan kamin ya harbi wasu.

Hanyoyin da za bi wajen kare kai daga kamuwa daga cutar Ebola sun haɗa da ƙauracewa cin naman biri ko jemage da sauran naman daji da ake wa laƙabi da ”Bush Meat”. Har wa yau likitoci sun ce za a iya ƙaurace wa kamuwa da cutar ta hanyar nisantar mai ita da kiyaye tsafta ta jiki da muhalli da yawaita wanke hannu.

Ma’aikatan lafiya sashen kula da masu cutar Ebola

Hanyoyin kauce wa cutar Ebola

  • riga-kafin cutar da ke da alaƙa
  • tsaftar jiki da muhalli
  • – rigunan kariya ga likitocin da ke kula da masu cutar
  • ƙaurace wa masu cutar

Kammalawa

Babu shakka cutar Ebola na ɗaya daga cikin cututtukan da suka fi kowanne haɗari ga rayuwar ɗan’adam. A bisa wannan dalili ne (ƙungiyar kula da harkokin lafiya ta duniya wato World Health Organization (WHO) tare da ƙawayenta na sauran ƙasashen duniya suka maida hankali sosai wajen sun kai duk wata irin gudummurmwa da za su iya a wuraren da cutar ta ɓulla.

Manazarta

C.M. Fauquet (2005). Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Oxford: Elsevier/Academic Press. p. 648. ISBN 9780080575483.

Contributors to Wikimedia projects. (2023, February 27). Ƙwayoyin cuta na Ebola. Wikipedia.

DW. (2015, August 24). Ebola. dw.com.

gb.cri.cn. (2014, August 13). Yadda cutar Ebola ke barazana ga duniya – china radio international. CRI.

Welle, D. (2014, August 6). Bayani kan kwayar cutar Ebola.. dw.com.

Weyer, J., Grobbelaar, A., & Blumberg, L. (2015). Ebola virus Disease: history, epidemiology and outbreaks. Current Infectious Disease Reports, 17(5). 

WHO. (March, 2014)  Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103. World Health Organization.

World Health Organization: (2023, April 20). Ebola virus disease. World Health Organization.

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