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Girgizar kasa

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Girgizar ƙasa wata irin girgiza ce ta bazata da kan faru a doron ƙasa sakamakon fitar kuzari mai ƙarfin gaske daga ƙundun ƙarƙashin ƙasa. Fitar wannan kuzari ke haifar da zizar seismic wanda ke sa ƙasa girgiza, wani lokaci cikin hargitsi, kuma ka iya ruguza gini ko ma tarwatsa mazaunin al’umma gabaɗaya.

Girgizar ƙasa na faruwa ne yayin da motsi na bazata ya auku akan layin ƙasar da ke tangarɗa, wannan tangarɗa na iya zama huda ko tsaga a ƙundun ƙarƙashin ƙasa. Haka na iya faruwa sakamakon motsin farantin tectonic, matakan farko na afkuwar girgizar ƙasa ko kuma wani abun daban.

Ana auna girgizar ƙasa ne a bisa irin ƙarfin zizar seismic da suka haifar.

Tarihi

Girgizar ƙasa ta farko da aka taɓa adanawa a tarihi ta faru ne a shekara ta 2299 BC a lardin Shandong da ke ƙasar Sin. Wannan girgizar ƙasa an adana ta ne a cikin wani tsohon littafin abubuwan da suka faru a birnin Sin mai suna “Bamboo Annals,” ita dai wannan girgizar ƙasa ta faru ne a lokacin mulkin Daular Xia.

Rabe-raben girgizar ƙasa

1. Tectonic earthquakes

Irin wannan girgizar ƙasa kan auku ne sakamakon motsin bazata akan layukan ƙasa masu rauni.

2. Volcanic earthquakes

Irin wannan girgizar ƙasa na aukuwa ne sakamakon fashewar duwatsu masu amon wuta da makamantansu.

3. Collapse earthquakes

Wannan girgizar ƙasa kan auku ne sakamakon rushewar kogunan ƙarƙashin ƙasa ko kuma giɓin cikin ƙarƙashin ƙasa.

Awon girgizar ƙasa

Ana auna girgizar ƙasa ne a bisa irin ƙarfin zizar seismic da suka haifar. Zizar seismic ɗin kuwa ana karkasa su ne a bisa irin inda suke zuwa da kuma yadda suke motsa gundarin ƙasa. A wani ƙaulin kuma, ana auna girgizar ƙasa ne bisa irin girmanta wanda ake aunawa a bisa irin ƙarfin da suke fitarwa da kuma irin ta’annatin da suke yi wa mutane ko dukiyoyi a inda suka faru.

Zurfin gajeriyar girgizar ƙasa ba ya wuce nisan kilomita 70

Girman girgizar ƙasa

Ana auna shi ne a sikelin Richter scale (local magnitude, ML) ko kuma a moment magnitude scale (Mw)

Tsanantar girgizar ƙasa

Wannan mataki ne na auna irin ta’adin da girgizar ƙasa ta yi a doron ƙasa kamar ƙarfin girgiza, ta’adi da kuma asarar rayuka. Ana yin wannan awo ne a ma’aunin Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale (MMI)

Zurfin girgizar ƙasa

  • Zurfin gajeriyar girgizar ƙasa ba ya wuce nisan kilomita 70.
  • Girgizar ƙasa mai zurfi kuwa tana haura nisan kilomita 70 ɗin.

Yawaitar girgizar ƙasa

  • Ƙananun girgizar ƙasa kan iya faruwa sau dubunnai a yini guda.
  • Manyan girgizar ƙasa kan auku ne sau ɗari wani lokaci a shekara

Matsalolin da girgizar ƙasa ke haifarwa

1. Tsagewar ƙasa tare da rufrawarta, wanda hakan ke jawo rugujewar gidaje tare da asarar dukiyoyi masu tarin yawa.

2. Zaizayewar ƙasa tare da tsotse albarkatun ƙasar wanda hakan ke hana tsirrai fitowa.

3. Faruwar annobar Tsunami yayin da girgizar ƙasar ta faru a ƙarƙashin ruwa.

4. Samuwar gobara tare afkuwar fashewar kayayyakin da kan ƙarfafa girman gobarar.

5. Rasa rayuka tare da samun munanan raunuka.

Girgizar ƙasa mafi muni

1. Girgizar ƙasa da tsunami ta Tōhoku, Japan. Ta faru ne a cikin shekarar 2011, girmanta ya kai matakin 9.1, an yi asarar dukiyar da ta kai darajar dala biliyan $360

2. Babbar girgizar ƙasa ta Hanshin, Japan. Ta faru ne a shekarar 1995, girman girgizar ƙasar ya kai matakin 6.9 kuma an yi asarar dukiyoyi da ya kai darajar dala biliyan $200

3. Girgizar ƙasar da ta faru a shekarar 2023 a Turkiya–Siriya. Wannan girgizar ƙasa ta kai matakin 7.8 kuma an yi asarar dukiyoyi masu tarin yawa da suka kai darajar dala biliyan $163.6

Girgizar ƙasa guda uku da aka fi rasa rayuka

1. A shekarar 1556, girgizar ƙasa ta Shaanxi da ta faru a ranar 23 ga watan Janairun wannan shekara a birnin Sin ta jawo asarar rayuka 100,000 (kai tsaye daga girgizar ƙasar) a hasashen mutuwar da ta biyo baya kuma bisa munanan raunuka da sauransu, adadin ya kai 820,000–830,000.

Girgizar kasa na haifar da asarar rayuka da duniyoyi

2. Girgizar ƙasar da ta afku a ranar 28 ga watan Yuli 1976 a garin Tangshan da ke Hebei, a birnin Sin mai matakin 7.8 ta jawo asarar rayuka 242,769–700,000+

3. Girgizar ƙasa ta Haiyuan da ta faru a ranar 16 ga watan Disamba 1920 a yankin Beiyang Ningxia–Gansu, na birnin Sin ta kai matakin 7.8 kuma an rasa rayuka 273,400

Gargaɗin girgizar ƙasa

Tsarin gargadin girgizar ƙasa shi ne tsarin na’urorin gaggawa, seismometers, sadarwa, kwamfutoci, da kararrawa wadanda aka kirkira don sanar da yankunan da ke kusa da wani gagarumin girgizar kasa yayin da ake ci gaba da rayuwa a wannan wuri. Wannan ba daidai yake da hasashen girgizar kasa ba, wanda a halin yanzu ba shi da ikon samar da takamaiman gargaɗin aukuwa.

A wani raye-rayen da ke ba da cikakken bayani game da yadda tsarin gargaɗin girgizar ƙasa ke aiki, Lokacin da aka gano P-waves, ana nazarin karatun nan da nan, kuma idan an buƙata, ana kuma rarraba bayanin faɗakarwa ga masu amfani da ci gaba da wayoyin hannu, rediyo, talabijin, jiniya, da tsarin PA / tsarin ƙararrawar wuta kafin zuwan S-waves.

Girgizar ƙasa mafiya shahara a duniya

1. A shekara ta 1500 BCE, a garin Knossos, da ke Crete na ƙasar Girka – wannan girgizar na ɗaya daga cikin jerangiyar girgizar ƙasar da suka shafe al’ummar Minoa.

2. A shekarar 27 BCE, a Thebes da ke birnin Misra – wannan girgizar ƙasa ce ta tsaga wani gunki da aka fi sani da Colossi of Memnon.

3. A shekarar 62 CE, a garin Pompeii da Herculaneum da ke ƙasar Italiya – waɗannan manyan biranen ƙasar Rum har yanzu basu dawo ba daga iftila’in girgizar ƙasa na matakin 62 da ya danne su sakamakon aman wutar da tsaunin Vesuvius ya yi a shekara ta 79.

4. A shekarar 115, a Antakya da ke ƙasar Turkiya – duk da cewa an sha yin girgizar ƙasa a wannan wuri, wadda ta auku a wannan lokaci ta fi muni, kaɗan ya rage da ta kashe sarkin Daular Rumawa Trajan.

Girgizar ƙasa ta farko da aka taɓa adanawa a tarihi ta faru ne a shekara ta 2299 BC a lardin Shandong da ke ƙasar Sin.

5. Girgizar ƙasa ta 1556, a lardin Shaanxi da ke birnin Sin – wannan ita ce girgizar ƙasa mafi haɗari da aka adana a tarihi.

6. Girgizar ƙasar 1650, a Cuzco, Peru – da yawa daga cikin gumakan tunawa na tarihi sun rushe, hakan ya zama ɗanbar sake gina birnin.

7. Girgizar ƙasa ta 1692, ta faru ne a Port Royal, Jamaica – tashar jiragen ruwa da ake cinikin bayi daga Birtaniya da dukiyoyi masu yawa duk sun nutse a teku sakamakon wannan girgizar ƙasa.

Kammalawa

A taƙaice, girgizar ƙasa wata annoba ce mai cin rayuka da dukiyoyin jama’a a duk inda ta afku. Har yanzu masana ba su gano wata sahihiyar hanya ta kare kai daga faruwar girgizar ƙasa ba.

Manazarta

Earthquake Hazards Program | (2024, April 11). Earthquake U.S. Geological Survey.

Sladen, A., Tavera, H., Simons, M., Avouac, J. P., Konca, A. O., Perfettini, H., Audin, L., Fielding, E. J., Ortega, F., & Cavagnoud, R. (2010). Source model of the 2007 Mw 8.0 Pisco, Peru earthquake: Implications for seismogenic behavior of subduction megathrusts. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(B2).

Fontijn, K., Williamson, D., Mbede, E., & Ernst, G. (2012). The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania – A volcanological review.  Journal of African Earth Sciences, 63, 12–31.

Majidi, N., Crawley, H., Guadagno, L., & Kasava, C. (2020). 10 Migrants caught in crises: Contexts, responses and innovation. World Migration Report . . ., 2020(1).

Feuillet, N., Beauducel, F., & Tapponnier, P. (2011). Tectonic context of moderate to large historical earthquakes in the Lesser Antilles and mechanical coupling with volcanoes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(B10).

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