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Guba

Ma’anar guba

Guba sunadarai ne masu iya haifar da illa ga mutum. Kalmar “sinadarai” kuma ta haɗa da ƙwayoyin, bitamin, magungunan kashe ƙwari, gurɓataccen abu, da sauran su. Ko radiation abu ne mai guba. Ko dayake a wasu lokutan ba a la’akari da su a matsayin “sinadari.” yawancin radiations suna samuwa ne daga radioisotopes, wadanda suke sunadarai.

A takaice dai, guba shi ne duk wani abu da zai iya cutar da halittu masu rai idan an sha, ko shaka, ko kuma ya shiga jiki ta cikin fata. Ana iya samun guba ta hanyoyi daban-daban, ciki har da:

Gubar bacteria.
  • Chemical (misali, magungunan kashe ƙwari, ƙarafa masu nauyi)
  • Shuke-shuke (misali, nightshade.)
  • Dabbobi (misali, dafin maciji, gizo-gizo)
  • Fungi (misali, mushrooms)
  • Magunguna ( a yi amfani da su fiye da ƙima)

Guba na iya haifar da alamomi iri-iri, daga rashin kuzarin jiki zuwa rashin lafiya mai tsanani ko ma mutuwa.

Nau’ikan guba

  1. Neurotoxins (suna shafar tsarin juyayi)
  2. Hemotoxins (guba mai haddasa lalacewar ƙwayoyin jini)
  3. Hepatotoxins (nau’in guba mai lalata hanta)
  4. Nephrotoxins (gubar da ke taɓa koda)

1. Neurotoxin:- wani nau’in guba ne wanda ke shafar tsarin juyayi, ciki har da kwakwalwa, kashin baya, da jijiyoyi. Ana iya samun Neurotoxins a wurare daban-daban, kamar:

  • Dafin dabba (misali, dafin maciji, cizon gizo-gizo)
  • Wasu shuke-shuke (misali, m nightshade, shuka ce guba mai guba)
  • Bacteria (misali, toxin botulinum)
  • Sinadarai (misali, magungunan kashe ƙwari, ƙarafa masu nauyi kamar gubar mercury)
  • Fungi

Neurotoxins na haifar da cututtuka kamar haka:

  • Raunin tsoka ko gurgujewa
  • Mutuwar jiki ko kwankwatsa
  • Toshewar ƙwaƙwalwa da rashin fahimta
  • Canjin yanayi (misali, damuwa)
  • Kamewa ko rawar jiki

Wasu misalan gubar neurotoxins sun haɗa da:

  • Tetrodotoxin (ana samunsa a cikin kifin puffer da wasu dabbobin ruwa)
  • Saxitoxin (samuwa a cikin wasu kifaye)
  • Botulinum toxin (amfani da Botox injections)
  • Toxin Tetanus (yana haifar da kamuwa da cutar tetanus)

2. Hemotoxin: wani nau’in guba ne da ke lalata jajayen ƙwayoyin jini (Red blood cells), wanda ke haifar da anemia, zubar jini, har ma da mutuwa. Ana iya samun gubar hemotoxins a wurare daban-daban, ciki har da:

Nau’in gubar hemotoxin
  • Dafin maciji (misali cobras, vipers, rattlesnakes)
  • Cizon gizo-gizo
  • Wasu tsire-tsire (misali, guguwar guba, tsumma na ruwa)
  • Bacteria
  • Gubar fungal (misali, aflatoxins)

Matsalolin da gubar hemotoxins kan haifar:

  • Hemolysis (lalacewar kwayar jini)
  • Anemia
  • Jaundice
  • Gajiya
  • Karancin numfashi
  • Koɗan fata
  • Jini ko kumbura

Wasu misalan gubar hemotoxins sun haɗa da:

  • Hemolysin (wanda ake samu a wasu kwayoyin cuta)
  • Venom hemotoxin (wanda ake samu a dafin maciji)
  • Ricin (wata guba ce da ake samu daga shuka)

3. Hepatotoxins: sune abubuwan da ke lalata hanta ko cutar da hanta, wanda ke haifar da rashin aiki na hanta. Ana iya samun hepatotoxins a wurare daban-daban kamar haka:

  • Sinadarai (misali, magungunan kashe ƙwari, ƙarafa masu nauyi kamar gubar mercury)
  • Magunguna (misali, yawan maganin acetaminophen, wasu maganin riga-kafi)
  • Shuka (misali, guguwar guba)
  • Gubar Fungal (misali, aflatoxins, ochratoxin)
  • Virus (misali, hepatitis A, B, da C)

Matsalolin da hepatotoxins kan haifar:

  • Kumburin hanta (hepatitis)
  • Lalacewar kwayar hanta (hepatocellular necrosis)
  • Taji (fibrosis)
  • Ciwon kai
  • Rashin hanta

Misalan hepatotoxins sun haɗa da:

  • Barasa (yawan shan barasa)
  • Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Amanitin (ana samunsa a wasu namomin kaza)

3. Nephrotoxins: su ne abubuwan da ke lalata ko cutar da koda, wanda ke haifar da rashin aiki na koda. Nephrotoxins za a iya samu a wurare daban-daban, ciki har da:

  • Sinadaran (misali, ƙarafa masu nauyi kamar gubar, mercury, da arsenic)
  • Magunguna (misali, wasu magungunan kashe ƙwayoyin cuta, magungunan hana kumburin da ba na steroidal ba)
  • Tsire-tsire (misali, tsumma mai guba, furanni lili)
  • Gubar Fungal (misali, ochratoxin)
  • Bacteria

Gubar nephrotoxins na iya haifar da:

  • kumburin koda (nephritis)
  • Lalacewar ƙwayoyin koda (necrosis)
  • Raunin koda
  • Cutar koda na yau da kullun
  • Ciwon koda

Wasu misalan nephrotoxins sun haɗa da:

  • Guba daga fenti ta tushen gurɓatacciyar ƙasa
  • Mercury (daga masana’antu, gurbataccen kifi)
  • Aristolochic acid (ana samunsa a wasu tsire-tsire)
  • Cyclosporine (maganin da ake amfani da shi wajen dashen gaɓoɓin jiki)
  • Gentamicin (maganin rigakafi)

Alfanun guba

Duk da yake guba tana da illa kuma tana da haɗari, amma idan aka yi amfani da wasu gubar a adadin da aka sarrafa, za a samu alfanu sosai kamar haka:

1. Magani: Ana amfani da wasu dafi, kamar toxin botulinum (Botox), da ɗan ƙaramin adadin don magance yanayin kiwon lafiya daban-daban, gami da wrinkles, migraines, da yawan gumi.

2. Jin zafi: Ana yi amfani da wasu guba, kamar dafin katantanwa, don samar da magungunan kashe zafi kamar ziconotide.

3. Maganin ciwon daji: Masu bincike suna binciken yuwuwar wasu guba, kamar ricin, don yaƙa da lalata ƙwayoyin cutar kansa.

4. Magungunan riga-kafi: Wasu guba, kamar penicillin, ana samun su daga fungi kuma sun kawo sauyi ga maganin cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta.

5. Magungunan kwari: Guba kamar pyrethrin, wanda aka samo daga furannin chrysanthemum, ana amfani da su don magance kwari.

6. Bincike: Guba kamar tetrodotoxin sun taimaka wa masana kimiyya su fahimci tsarin juyayi da kuma samar da sababbin jiyya don cututtuka na jijiyoyin jini.

7. Dabbobin halittu: Wasu guba, kamar dafin kwaɗin, sun kai ga gano sabbin magunguna kuma sun taimaka wajen kiyaye nau’ikan halittu.

Yana da mahimmanci a lura cewa waɗannan ingantattun tasirin sun dogara sosai a kan takamaiman mahallin, sashi, da aikace-aikace. Guba har yanzu tana da haɗari kuma ya kamata a kula da ita sosai.

Haɗarin guba

Guba na iya yin mummunan tasiri halittu da muhalli, wasu daga cikin haɗuran sun haɗa da:

  • Cututtuka (Rashin lafiya)
  • Lalacewar gabobi da gazawa
  • Mutuwa
  • Matsalolin haihuwa
  • Lalacewar jijiyoyi da rashin fahimta
  • Matsalolin numfashi
  • Matsalolin zuciya
  • Matsalolin ciki da lalacewar hanta
  • Lalacewar koda
  • Ciwon daji da ciwace-ciwace
  • Gurbacewar muhalli
  • Rugujewar yanayin muhalli da bambancin halittu
  • Gurɓawar lafiya na dogon lokaci da cututtuka na yau da kullun
  • Tasirin taɓin hankali

Matakan kariya daga guba

  • Kula da sinadarai da abubuwa masu haɗari
  • Sanya kayan kariya kamar safar hannu, abin rufe fuska, da gilashi.
  • Karanta umarnin amfani da abu a hankali.
  • Ajiye guba a wuraren da aka keɓe, nesa da yara da dabbobi.
  • Zubar da guba da kwantenansu yadda ya kamata.
  • A guji sha ko shakar abubuwan da ba a sani ba.
  • Kiyaye tsaftar gidaje da filin aiki da samun iska mai kyau.
  • Yi hankali da yuwuwar tushen guba, kamar magunguna da sinadarai da suka ƙare.
  • Shigar da abubuwan gano carbon monoxide da ƙararrawar hayaƙi.
  • Koyi taimakon farko da dabarun CPR.
  • Haddace lambobin gaggawa
  • Neman sani game da guba da illolinta
  • A guji cin abinci ko abin sha wanda zai iya gurɓata
  • Yi amfani da kayan kariya lokacin sarrafa magungunan kashe ƙwari ko wasu abubuwa masu guba
  • Yi hankali yayin tafiya zuwa wuraren ajiye ruwa da abinci daban-daban

Riga-kafi dai shi ne tushe! Ta hanyar yin la’akari da hanyoyin samuwar guba da ɗaukar matakan da suka dace, za ku iya rage haɗarin guba sosai.

Manazarta

Professional, C. C. M. (n.d.). Poisoning. Cleveland Clinic.

Wong, K. L., Halstead, B. W., & Klaassen, C. D. (1999, July 26). Poison | Description, Classification, & Control. Encyclopedia Britannica.

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