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Kuturta

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Cutar kuturta wata irin cuta ce mai wuyar sha’ani da take yaɗuwa a cikin iska – ake ɗauka wadda take ɓata fuska da sauran jiki, tana sauya kamannin halitta – tana riƙe jijiyoyi ta kuma guntule ‘yan yatsu. Wanda   cutar kuturu ta kama shi ake da suna ‘kuturta’, mace kuma ana ce da ita kuturwa, jam’insu kuma kutare (CNHN, 2006:258).

Kuturu a al’adar Bahaushe mutum ne mai saurin suƙewa, da fushi da baƙar magana. Wannan kuwa ba ya rasa nasaba da yanayin cutar da ke takara mas ta addabi rayuwarsa. Saurin fishi da zuciyar kuturu abin ya w uce misali, domin ko da kansa yana fishi balle da wani can da ba shi ba. Duk wata magana, ko aiki, na kutare Bahaushe na ɗora shi a kan sanin da ya yi wa kuturu na saurin fushi da zuciya. (Bunza, 2006:192).

Cutar Kuturta mai guntule ‘yan yatsu

Abin da ke kawo kuturta

Babban abin da ke kawo cutar kuturta wata kwayar cuta ce da ake kira ‘Bacille’ da harshen Faransanci, wanda wani masanin kimiya da ake kira Hensin ne, ya gano ta a shekarar 1873, har ma ake kiran ƙwayar cutar Bacille de Hensin da Faransanci. Ita dai cutar kuturta cuta ce da ta shafi fatar jiki a karon farko, kafin daga bisani ta kama jijiyoyi, kuma cuta ce da ba a gadon ta, amma ana iya samun ta daga wanda yake dauke da ita, idan akwai mu’amala mai yawa tskanin su.

Yaɗuwar kuturta

Kwayar cutar Mycobacterium leprae  da ke haifar da cutar kuturta. Ana tunanin cewa cutar kuturta tana yaɗuwa ta hanyar haɗuwa da ƙwayoyin mucosal na mutumin da ke dauke da cutar. Wannan kuwa yawanci yana faruwa lokacin da mai cutar ya yi atishawa ko tari.

Kwayar cutar tana haɓaka sannu a hankali – cutar tana da matsakaicin lokacin da mutum kan kamu da ita, (wato lokacin kamuwa da cutar da kuma bayyanar alamomin farko) ba ya wuce shekaru biyar – a cewar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO).

Rabe-raben cutar kuturta

Rabe-raben cutar kuturta ya ta’allaka da gwargwadon irin kwayoyin cutar da suke shiga jikin mutum. A cikinsu akwai wadanda suka fi saurin yaɗuwa da cutarwa, akwai kuma masu saukin yaɗuwa da matsaloli.

Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta bayyana rabe-raben cutar kuturta bayan dogon bincike da masana wannan cuta suka gabatar kamar haka;

‘Tuberculoid’ (TT) ‘Baderline‘
‘Tuberculoid (BT)’ ‘Borderline (BB)’

Wadannan su ne nau’i masu saukin cutarwa da saukin saurin yaduwa a tsakanin mutane kasantuwar ba yawan ƙwayoyin cuta ne ke haddasa waɗannan ba wato ‘Paucibacillary forms.’ ‘Borderline Lepromatous (BL)’ ‘Lepromatous (LL)’

Lalle waɗannan sun fi muni da saurin yaɗuwa a tsakanin mutane saboda yawan ƙwayoyin cutar da kan yi sanadin wannan wato ‘Multibacillary Forms.’

Hannaye biyu da kuturta ta guntule ‘yan yatsu

Alamomin Rabe-raben Kuturta

1. Tuberculoid Leprosy

• Taurin fatar jiki da tsoka, wato idan aka taɓa fatar a ji ta yi tauri sosai.

• Rashin iya fahimtar zafi ko sanyi a fatar jiki.

• Gaza tantance zafi ko sanyi a jikin mutum kan yi sanadin jin raunuka a wurare daban-daban a jikin marar lafiya mai ɗauke da irin wannan nau’in kuturta.

• Tabbai na ƙurajen kuturta waɗanda ke sanya fata ta yi baki ko sauya launuka daban-daban.

2. Lepromatous Leprosy

• Caɓewar ƙurajen jikin mai ɗauke da cutar waɗanda za su riƙa zubar da ruwan ƙurji ko mugunya.

• Manyan ƙuraje a fuska da kunnuwa da hannuwa da kafafu.

• Wasu lokutan kurajen kan bambanta da juna ta fuskar launi.

• Fitar jini da wani irin ruwa daga hancin mai ɗauke da cutar a wasu lokutan.

• Kumburin ƙafafu daga ƙasa.

3. Borderline Leprosy

Wannan nau’in cutar kuturta ta tattaro wasu alamomin irin cutar ‘Tuberculoid’ da ‘Lepromatous.’ Saboda haka za a iya ganin alamomin waɗannan nau’ikan kuturta a jikin marar lafiya.

Alamomin cutar kuturta na gabaɗaya

– Raunin tsoka
– Tauyewar hannaye da ƙafafu
– Raunukan fata

Raunin fata yana haifar da raguwar jin daɗin taɓawa, zazzabi, ko zafin jiki. Raunin da fatar ke yi ba ya warkewa, ko da bayan wani lokaci ne mai yawa. Launin fata na asali kan iya sauyawa ko yin ja sannan kuma da kumburi.

Sai dai bincike ya nuna cewa, cutar ba ta da saurin yaɗuwa. Amma duk da haka, kusanci, da yawan mu’amala ko saduwa da mutumin da ɗauke da cutar kuma ba a kula da shi ba na tsawon lokaci zai iya haifar da kamuwa da cutar kuturta.

Cikin alamomin cutar kuturta akwai kumburin ƙafa

Yadda ake gwajin cutar

Likita zai fara gudanar da bincike na zahiri don gano bayyananun alamomin cutar. Hakan zai gudanar da wani binciken wanda ake ɗaukar ƙwayar halitta ko wani yanki na fata ko tsokar jikin mutum ko kuma jijiya sai kai ɗakin gwaje-gwaje domin yin gwaji.

Bayan nan sai a yi gwajin fata gabaɗayanta wanda zai nuna nau’i ko irin yanayin cutar kuturtar. Daga wannan kuma sai a yi wa mutum allurar cutar kuturta ‘yar kaɗan – da ke bayyanar da ƙwayar cutar. Ana yin allurar ne a sangalalin hannun daga sama kusa da hammata.

Da zarar an kammala waɗannan binciken da gwaje-gwaje, idan mutum yana ɗauke da cutar kuturta to sakamakon zai nuna cewa yana da ita a cikin jikinsa

Maganin cutar kuturta

Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO), ta samar da wasu magunguna da kan warkar kowace irin nau’in cutar kuturta, a shekara ta 1995. Magungunan sun kasance a wadace kuma kyauta ga ma masu fama da cutar.

Bugu da kari, akwai ƙwayoyin magani da ke kashe ƙwayar cutar da ke haddasa kuturta, wadannan ƙwayoyin magani sun haɗa da:

– Dapsone (Aczone)
– Rifampin (Rifadin)
– Clofazimine (Lamprene)
– Minocycline (Minocin)
– Ofloxacin (Ocuflux)

Likitoci kan rubuta wa marar lafiya magani fiye da ɗaya, ya danganta da irin ƙarfin cutar a jiki. Ana shan maganin cutar ne tsawon shekara ɗaya zuwa biyu.

Manazarta

Welle, D. (2014, May 14). Bayani kan cutar kuturta da makanta.  dw.com.

 World Health Organization: WHO. (2023, January 27). Leprosy.

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