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Kwayar hallita

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Ƙwayar hallitar gado

Kafin mu fara bayani akan (Genetics) gado yana da kyau mu fahimci cewa kafin kansa Genetic ɗin akwai kalmomi da suka kamaci zuwa sannan gundarin kalmar. Waɗanda sune mafarin samar da tartibin bayanin gado sannan asalin kalmar.
Kalma ta farko ita ce ƙwayar halitta wacce a harshen turancin malaman kimiyya suke kira da suna “Cell”.

Wannan ita ce asalin rayuwa da duk wani halitta mai rai baki ɗaya; daga dabbobi zuwa mutane da bishiyoyi. Duk wani abu mai rai a tare da shi, to asalinsa daga wannan ƙwayar halitta ne, wato “Cell”. Wannan ƙwayar halitta ido ba ya iya riskanta, kuma Allah ya watsa ire-irensu da yawa a cikin jikin ɗan Adam, misali. Duk bayanan da za su zo kan tsarin gadon ɗabi’un halitta suna dogaro ne kacokam kan wannan tubali, wato ƙwayar halitta.
Sai kalmar da take maƙale da ita ita ce “Cell Membrane”, wato “Tantanin ƙwayar halitta” ke nan na can ciki. Wannan tantani aikinbshi ne bayar da kariya ga dukkan maɗaukan da ke cikin ƙwayar halitta. Kuma shi ne ganuwa na biyu daga cikin kwayar halitta, bayan ganuwar waje mai suna “Cell Wall.” Sai kalmar “Cytoplasm”, wanda a harshen Hausa na kiransa da “Ruwan rayuwa.”

Bayan “Ruwan Rayuwa” (Cytoplasm), sai abu mai mahimmanci na gaba, wato “Asalin sinadarin halitta” wanda a harshen turanci ake kira “Nucleus”. “Nucleus” yana cikin harabar tantanin kwayar halitta ne shi ma, kuma shi ne jigo a fannin binciken sanin tsarin gadon ɗabi’u da siffofin halitta a kimiyyance. Domin shi ne yake ɗauke da dukkan abubuwan da bincikenmu ke dogaro a kansu wajen sanin tsarin gadon ɗabi’un halitta. A cikin wannan “Asalin sinadarin halitta” (Nucleus) ne ake samun “Chromosome”, wato “Ma’adanar bayanan ɗabi’ar halitta”.

DNA Chromosomes

Kowace ƙwayar halitta na ɗauke da tagwayen “Ma’adanar bayanan ɗabi’ar halitta” guda 23 ne. Wannan ke nuna cewa a cikin kowanne, za a samu guda 46 kenan (23 x 2 = 46). Dukkan waɗannan ma’adanar bayanan ɗabi’ar halitta iri ɗaya ne, a jikin mutum ɗaya, duk da yake kowane ɗan Adam na shi sun sha bambanta da na waninsa. Kowane ɗayan tagwayen “Ma’adanar bayanan ɗabi’a” kuma yana ɗauke ne da zaren “Madarar bayanan ɗabi’ar halitta” da ake kira “Deoxyribonucleic Acid” ko “DNA” a taƙaice.

Wannan zare a siffar sarka yake, mai harɗe da juna. Kuma a jikin layin wannan sakakken zare ne ake da “ƙwayoyin ɗabi’ar halittar” kowane ɗan Adam. Waɗannan ƙwayoyin ɗabi’un halitta su ake kira “Genes”. Kowane ɗan Adam yana keɓantuwa ne da kwayoyin ɗabi’un halitta daban da suka sha bamban da na wani, wadanda ya gado su daga wajen iyayensa ko kakanninsa ko kakannin kakanninsa, har dai abin ya kai ga Annabi Adamu da Hauwa’u, amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare su.

Sai kalma ta gaba ita ce “Allele”, wato “Dabi’ar halitta ta nusamman.” Misali, daga cikin ɗabi’ar halitta akwai tsawo, da gajarta, da saurin fushi, da fara’a, da sanyin zuciya, da zafin rai da sai sauransu. Waɗannan dukkansu “dabi’un halitta ne na musamman,” wato “Allele.

Bayan kalmar “Allele sai ai kalmar “Trait”, wato “Keɓantacciyar ɗabi’ar halitta” wajen rinjaye ko rauni ake nufi. Idan mutum yana da wata ɗabi’a ta halitta mai rinjaye, wacce ke bayyana a jikin ‘ya’yansa, wannan ita ake kira “Dominant Trait”, wato “Dabi’a mai rinjaye.” Idan kuma ɗabi’ar halittarsa ba ta iya bayyana a fili, saboda rinjayar da ɗabi’ar halittar matarsa ko na mahaifinsa suka yi a kan na shi, sai a kira wannan da suna “Recessive Trait”, wato “Dabi’a nakasasshiya” kenan.

Baya ga ita sai kalma ta gaba wato kalmar “Genotype” wato “Nau’in ɗabi’ar halitta” na wani mutum da ake iya gane shi da shi. Kowane ɗan Adam idan aka gudanar da gwajin ɗabi’ar halitta (DNA test) daga ƙwayoyin halittarsa za a samu yana da keɓantacciyar ɗabi’a ta musamman wanda babu mai irinta, kuma duk wanda ya dangance shi daga cikin ‘ya’yansa, za a iya gane dangantakarsu ta wannan hanya.

Kalma ta gaba ita ce kalmar “Phenotype”, wato “Nau’in ɗabi’ar halitta na zahiri.” Kamar yadda ake amfani da “Genotype” don gano alaƙa da dangantaka ta hanyar ƙwayoyin ɗabi’ar halitta da ke ɓoye a ƙwayar halittar jikin mutum, to, haka tsarin “Phenotype” yake wajen gano dangantakar halitta, amma na zahiri; tsawo ne, gajarta ne, faɗi ne, sirantaka ne, fari ne, baƙi ne, da dai sauransu. A takaice dai, “Phenotype” shi ne “Nau’in ɗabi’ar halitta na zahiri” da ake iya gani. Domin akwai dalilai guda biyu da ke haddasa tsarin gadon ɗabi’un halitta a tsakanin halittu. Dalilin farko shi ne bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin ƙwayoyin halitta, wato “Cell” kenan, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama. Dalili na biyu kuma shi ne tasirin mahallin da halittu ke zama a cikinsa ko a harabarsa, wajen sauya ɗabi’ar halitta daga wanda ake gado zuwa mai gado.

Phenotype hybrid

Genetics”, wadda ake nufin “Ilmin gadon ɗabi’un halitta.” Wannan shi ne sunan da wannan fanni ke tutiya da shi. Suna ne gamamme.

Genetics

Kalmar ilmin gadon ɗabi’a kalma ce da ta samo asali daga girkawa (Greek). Ma’anar kalmar a kai tsaye kuma za mu iya kiranta da ‘asali’ ko kuma ‘mafari’ na wani abu ko kuma yadda wani abu yake wanzuwa. A taƙaice dai za mu iya cewa tushiya. A ɓangaren kimiya za mu iya kiran kalmar da ɓangare na ilmin kimiyar yadda gado yake wanzuwa na yanayin hallita ko ɗabi’a daga kan iyayye zuwa ‘ya’ya ko kuma kakkani a tsakanin wasu hallitu.

A tattare kuma a dunƙule da kalmaar (genetics) gado akwai kalmar da ake kira da suna (gen) ita wannan kalma za a iya kiranta da ƙwayar hallita ko kuma gundarin ƙwayar hallita wadda ita ke ƙunshe da abubuwa da dama masu muhimmanci wanda ake turawa daga iyayye zuwa ‘ya’ya wanda sune suke samar da yanayi na ɗan Adam kama daga kan kammani, da ɗabi’u da kuma wasu cuta da za su iya samun ɗan Adam daga ainihin hallitar gado. Atattare da kalmar (gen) kuma akwai ƙwayar (cell) ɗin wadda take ɗauke da ainihin gundarin sinadaren ƙwayar gado na halitar ɗan Adama wanda shi ake kira da suna (DNA). Shi DNA shi ne ya ƙunshe da duk wasu bayanai da za su iya haska cewa mutum zai iya haifar abin da ya yi kama da mutum.

Genetic, ƙwayar halittar gado

Misali:
Dalilin da ya sa mutum yake tafiya a tsaye?
Me yasa mutum yake da hannaye biyu? ƙafaffu biyu. Ido da hanci da banki da sauransu.
Duk DNA shi ne yake ɗauke da alhinin wannan bayanan. Haka kuma har ila yau shi yake ɗauke da abin da ya ƙunshi lafiyar ɗan Adam ta yadda zai samu cigan lafiyarsa. Misali yadda mutum zai rayu, da yadda mutum zai haihu da yadda zai ci ya kuma sha. A taƙaice dai ana magana ne kan gaba ɗaya gundarin rayuwar ɗan Adam baki ɗayanta.

Genetics shi ne abin da yake bambance mu daga wasu nau’ika na hallitar ɗan Adam. Kamar yadda za a ga wani ƙwayar idonsa baƙa, wani ruwan bula wani ruwan ƙasa-ƙasa ko kalar zaiba da sauransu. Wani ya kasance baƙi, wani gajere wani ma wada ne wani ma kuma ya wuce wadan sosai duk wannan yana tattare ne a cikin ƙwayar gado wato DNA.

Shi kansa DNA ɗin kowa ne ɗan Adam ana samar da shi ne daga hallitu guda biyu. Kamar yadda yake a kimiyance kowane mutum yana gadar ƙwayar hallitar gado kaso hamsin daga uwa sai kaso hamsin kuma daga uba. Hakan ce ta sa ana mutum yake gado kamani ko ɗabi’a ko kuma hallaya da asuran abubuwan da suka danganci uwa da kuma uba har ma da cuttutuka, basira ƙwalƙwalwa da sauransu.

Sai kalma ta gaba, mai suna “Genetic Engineering,” wato “Fannin kwaskwarimar ɗabi’ar halitta” ta hanyar kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani. Wannan fanni ne mai haɗari, domin sashi ne da ita kanta kimiya ba ta yadda da yin aiki akan sashin ba domin akwai binciken da ba su kammala ba game da sashin.

Akwai wani likita wurin 2019 ɗan China da ya yi ƙoƙarin sauya (Gens) ɗin wasu tagwaye guda biyu. A ƙoƙarinsa na yin bincike yadda zai samar da ‘ya’yan da aka haifa amma ba tare da sun kamu da ƙwayar cutar HIV ba kamar yadda iyayensu suke da ita. Aikin na sa ya yi nasara domin ya yi aikin an kuma haifin yaran lafiya ƙalau babu wani sauyi a gen ɗin su na hallita da hallaya da kuma ɗabi’a gaba ɗaya. Sai dai kasancewar ya yi akin ba sanin hukumar lafiya, babu amincewar iyayen yaran sai da ya tabbata aikin ya yi sannan ya faɗi cewar ya yi editing na gen ɗin yaran hakan ya sa gwamnatin ƙasar ta kamashi aka ɗaureshi sai a tsakanin nan aka fito da shi. A yanzu haka kuma ya koma ɗakin bincike domin yana son gano hanyoyin da zai dinga sassauya (Gens) na ɗan Adam tare da ƙirƙirar magunguna da suƙa shafi ɓangaren. Tare da ƙirƙirar magungunan da za su iya amfani akan cututtukan dake tattare da gado. Akwai yi wuwar nan gaba bayanai za su zo kan muhawarar masana kimiyya, da masana al’adu, da masana tarihi, da nalaman addini, kan dacewa ko rashin dacewar wannan tsari na kwaskwariman ɗabi’ar halittar ɗan Adam.

Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Gene Mutation,” wato “Canjin ɗabi’ar halitta.” Wannan kan faru ne idan aka samu ƙari ko ragi ko jirkicewar yanayin ɗabi’un halitta, daga cikin kwayoyin halittar mutum. Misali, mutum na iya rayuwa shekaru goman farkon rayuwar aurensa yana haifan ‘ya’ya masu kama iri ɗaya na ɗabi’ar halitta, sai a gaba ya samu wasu ‘ya’ya masu bambancin ɗabi’ar halitta daban da wacce ‘ya’yansa na farko suke da ita, sanadiyyar wancan dalili. Idan haka ta faru, to, an samu “Sauyin ɗabi’ar halitta” kenan daga ƙwayoyin halittar da ke jikinsa ko na matarsa. Wannan shi ake kira “Gene Mutation.”
Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Genetic Disorder,” wacce ke nufin “Tangardar ɗabi’ar halitta.” Wannan tangarɗa na haifar da cuta ne na musamman, misali kamar su cutar sankara da sauransu, kuma hakan na faruwa ne sanadiyyar canji ko sauyin ɗabi’un halitta da ke cikin ƙwayoyin halittar Uba ko Uwa, mai ɗauke da ɗabi’ar halitta mafi rinjaye, wato “Recessive Trait.” Wasu cututtukan kan samu ne ta hanyar gado daga Uba ko Uwa masu ɗauke da cutar, wasu kuma kan samu ne sanadiyyar “Canjin ɗabi’ar halitta” (Gene Mutation) da ya faru daga baya, a ƙwayoyin halittar mai gadar da ɗabi’ar.

Kalma ta gaba ita ce “Gene Therapy,” wato “Magance tangardar halitta.” Ana kuma yin hakan ne ta hanyar maye gurbin ɗabi’un halittar da suka lalace ko masu haddasa tangarɗa ta hanyar gadar wa ‘ya’ya cututtuka na musamman, da wasu ɗabi’un halitta (Genes) masu kyau, waɗanda suke lafiyayyu. Fannin “Gene Therapy” ne ke magance matsalolin “Genetic Disorder”, wato “Tangarɗar ɗabi’ar halitta.” Sai kalma ta gaba, wato “Heredity.” Abin da wannan kalma ke nufi shi ne, tsarin “Gadon ɗabi’un galitta” daga mai gadarwa (Uba ko Uwa) zuwa mai gado (‘Ya’ya ko Jikoki). Wadannan ɗabi’un halitta dai sun haɗa da launin fatan jiki, da launin idanu, da launin gashin kai, da dai sauransu. A wasu lokuta a kan yi amfani da kalmar “Inheritance” a maimakon “Heredity.” Duk ma’anarsu ɗaya ne a wannan fanni.

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