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Rediyo

Kalmar ‘Radio’ ta samo asali ne daga kalmar Latin _Radius_. Kalmar za mu iya cewa tana da ma’ana ko fassara guda biyu.

Ta farko: Tana nuna yadda Radio waves take tasowa daga antenna kamar willin keke yake, ko kuma kamar yadda tiriri yake tashi ya barbazu ko’ina.

Ta biyu: Tana nuna yadda Radio Waves take kamar hasken _rays_, yadda yake barbazuwa ko’ina ya game. Misali; hasken rana ya taso daga rana amma sai ya barbazu ta ko’ina, to kamar haka misalin Radio waves take a taƙaice. Sanna kalmar Radio tana nufin abubuwa da dama, amma wanda mu muka fi sani shi ne na’ura ce da take ɗauko radio waves domin sadarwa.

Akwatin rediyo mai kaset

Ga misali guda biyu

Broadcaster Receiver (AM/FM Radio): Radiyo tana karɓar AM (Amplitude Modulation) da FM (Frequency Modulation) sannan ta yi broadcast, ma’ana ta fitar da bayani. Tana ba da music (wakoki), hira, labarai, da abubuwa daban-daban kuma masu yawa da amfani.

Na’urar sadarwa: Idan muka duba radiyo a tsanake, za mu ga radiyo hanyar sadarwa ce da take amfani da hanyar wireless. Wannan ya haɗa da two-way radios, ham radios, da sauran devices ɗin da ake amfani da su ta wannan hanyar. Domin ita Radio ana amfani da ita wajen aika saƙon gaggawa kuma ya bazu a cikin ƙanƙanin lokaci.

Za a iya amfani da kalmar radio wajen bayar da description na electromagnetic waves da kansu.
Shekaru masu yawa da suka wuce, tun farkon lokacin da aka fara amfani da Radio, ana kiran radio da _wireless telegraphy_. Daga baya kuma turawan burtaniya suka rage tsayin kalmomin, sai ya koma _wireless_ kawai.

Idan muka koma ɓangaren etymology (ilimin tarihi da asalin kalmomi da yadda suke canza ma’ana). kalmar Radio, a ɓangaren sadarwa na wireless, tun asali radio conductor aka sa mata, ma’ana radio conductor ake cewa. Edouard Branly, don physics na ƙasar faransa, shi ne wanda ya ƙirƙiri sunan a shekara 1897. Shi ma kuma ya samo sunan ne daga kalmar radiate. Bayan wannan, an sake samun kalmar cikin article ɗin Lee De Forest ya wallafa a shekarar 1907.

Sojojin navy na amerika sun fara amfani da ita a shekarar 1912, daga nan ta zama popular. Kalmar broadcast kuma an samo ta ne daga manoma, wadda take nufin warwatsa iri a lokacin shuka. Daga baya kuma yaruka da yawa a nahiyar Asia da Europe suka ɗauki kalmar suka saka a cikin yarensu su ma, kamar dai yadda muka ɗauki kalmar kofi. Har 20th century, ƙasashen british da wireless suke kiran radio. Tun da aka ƙaddamar da ita a farko-farkon 1920, jaridun BBC da ke UK ana kiran su da Radio Time.

Yanzu kam za mu iya cewa kalmar wireless ta zama popular sosai saboda yadda aka samu networks kala-kala wanda su ma wireless ne, kamar Local Area Network (LAN), Wi-Fi–karatun da muka yi a baya. A yanzu kalmar radio ana amfani da ita a kan akwatin radio, wireless kuma a kan hanyar sadarwa ta wireless.

Idan muka koma ɓangaren technical, a nan ma kalmar radio tana nufin tura electromagnetic signal ba tare da wire ba, zuwa waje me nisa sosai. (Abubuwan technology na lokacin, kamar telegraph da telephone, suna amfani da wire wajen tura signals [sakonni]. Radio tana tura saƙo ta cikin iska ba tare da waya ko ɗaya ba tun a farkon 1920 wanda mutanen lokacin suke ganin haka kamar wani tsafi. Kalmar ‘broadcast’ kuma tana nufin tura saƙo zuwa ga masu sauraro masu yawa. Domin wasu labaran mutane da yawa ne suke sauraro.
Misali; freedom radio, mutanen kano ne da wani ɗan yanki a Katsina suke samun labaransu.

Wata Radion kuma, kamar ta sojoji da ‘yan sanda, a tsakaninsu kawai suke communicating.
To, har yanzu dai ana amfani da Radio duk da cewa internet ta zo ta mamaye komai, amma duk da haka radio tana da nata gurbi na musamman domin wayar da kan al’umma. Saboda Radio ba wai iya technology ba ne, radio ta zama babban misali na Mass Communication. Hanya ce ta sauraron labarai da hirarraki daga garuruwa masu yawa. Muna sauraron music ta rediyo, weather news, wasanni, da abubuwan da suka shafi addini. Sanna mutumin da yake da Rediyo yana sauraron muryoyin manyan mutane, ‘yan siyasa, celebrities a cikin shirye-shirye. Kuma a cikin shirin ana bari a wani lokacin a kira waya a yi magana da ire-iren waɗannan manyan mutanen. Sannan idan mai gabatar da shiri a Rediyo yana gabatar da shiri, mai sauraro yana ji kamar da shi kai-tsaye yake yin magana.

Mutum zai iya sauraron rediya a kan gado, gona, cikin mota a ko-ina. Makafi sun dogara da Rediyo wajen samun labarai, amma kuma ahar masu ido suna amfana da shi matuƙa gaya.

Wave wata hanyar ce ta motsin energy daga wani waje zuwa wani waje ba tare da an ɗauki kaya masu yawa ba. Kamar dai yadda igiyar ruwa (wave) take tafiya cikin teku ba tare da ruwan ya yi wani motsi sosai ba.

Electromagnetic Signal

Hasken torchlight idan aka kunna wannan hasken da ya fita yana haskawa shi ne ɗaya daga cikin electromagnetic signals.

Electromagnetic signal wani irin nau’i ne na WAVE da yake ɗaukar bayani (information) cikin nau’i daban-daban, ta hanyar electric ko magnetic field.

Yadda Electromagnetic signal ke aiki

1- Electricity and Magnetism: Electricity (lantarki) da Magnet (mayen-ƙarfe) abokai ne, wanda kuma ya kasance suna son su ga suna yin rawa tare. Duk lokacin da electricity ta yi motsi ko ta taka rawa, tana samar da Magnetic Field, duk lokacin kuma da Magnetic Field ya canza, yana kawo motsin electricity. Kasancewarsu tare kuma abokai da suke son yin rawa ya sa suka samar da wata irin rawa da ake kira Electromagnetic wave.

2- Travelling Waves: Electromagnetic Waves na tafiya ta cikin space, kamar dai yadda igiyar ruwa take tafiya cikin ruwa, amma ta fi igiyar ruwa gudu. Waɗannan waves ɗin na tafiya ta cikin iska, space, har ta cikin abubuwa solid–electromagnetic waves tana ratsawa ta ciki.

Ire-iren Electromagnetic Waves

1- Radio Waves: Wannan kamar igiyar ruwa ce wadda ba a gani, tana ɗaukar muryoyi da music ta yaɗa su ta hanyar Rediyo ko TV.

2- Microwave: irin wannan waves ɗin na dafa ko ɗumama abinci cikin microwave ko oven, kamar yadda aka faɗa. Suna kawo motsi ga water-molecules da suke cikin abinci, ta haka abincin yake yin zafi.

3- Infrared Waves: Wannan kamar heat wave suke. Duk lokacin da aka ji ɗumin rana ko heater, aikin infrared waves ne.

4- Visible Light: Wannan shi ne hasken da ake gani, kamar na rana, na rainbow, ko na fitila. Aikin waves ne.

5- Ultraviolet Waves: wannan waves ɗin daga hasken rana suke, kuma suna kawo sunburn idan mutum ya daɗe a cikin rana.

6- X-rays: Likitoci na amfani da irin wannan waves ɗin dan su ga abin da ke cikin jikin mutum, kamar ƙashi, jariri, da sauran su.

7- Gamma rays: Wannan nau’i waves ne masu matuƙar power. Ana amfani da su wajen treatment din cututtuka da kuma bincike a kan space.

Karɓa da kuma tura signal

1- Antenna: Mu ɗauki antenna kamar sandar tsafi ce wadda ta ke turawa da karbar Electromagnetic waves. Duk lokacin da kika kunna rediya, antenna tana ɗaukar Electromagnetic signal daga cikin iska sannan ta mayar da shi zuwa sauti, sai a ji sautin na fita ta speaker.

2- Modulation: Modulation kamar ka rubuta sako cikin takarda ka saka cikin kwalba ne sannan ka tura shi zuwa wani gari. Kwalbar ita ce wave din, saƙon da aka rubuta ciki kuma shi ne information ɗin, kamar music ko magana kawai.

3- Reception: Lokacin da Rediyon ki ta karɓi wannan saƙon da aka tura miki ta hanyar Modulation, za ta buɗe wannan kwalbar ta ɗauko wannan takardar sai ta mayar da (convert) abin ya koma sauti. Idan TV ce kuma ta mayar da shi zuwa hoto ko bidiyo.

Misalai

1- Wi-Fi: Wi-Fi ta cikin wayar ana amfani da Electromagnetic waves to ɗora mutum bisa internet ba tare da waya (wire) ba. (Kamar dai yadda aka yi a Network).

2- Remote Control: Duk lokacin da kika danna remote, yana aikawa TV infrared Waves domin ta canza tasha ko rage volume, ko ma dai me aka sa ya yi.

3- Sunlight: da taimakon hasken rana muke gani, kuma mu ji ɗumin ranar. Hasken rana shi ne babban misalin _natural Electromagnetic waves_.

A taƙaice Electromagnetic Waves nau’in waves ne, wanda ba a gani, da suke ɗaukar saƙonni da energy daban-daban, kuma suke taimaka mana mu ji sauti, music, kallon TV, gani, dafa abinci, da abubuwa masu yawan gaske.

Manazarta

Carole Fleming. (2009). “The Radio Handbook” (Third Edition) Routledge

Sungook Hong. (2001). “Wireless: From Marconi’s Black-Box to the Audion” The MIT Press

Paul J. Nahin (2001) “The Science of Radio” Springer

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