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Tauraron dan’adam

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Tauraron ɗan’adam wata na’ura ce da aka ƙirƙira wadda ake harbawa sararin samaniya, domin karɓar saƙo daga wani ɓangare na duniya zuwa wani ɓangare na duniyar. Masana sun fahimci yadda shimfiɗar duniya take kuma suna amfani da wannan fasaha wajen inganta harkokin sadarwa.

Tauraron dan’adam yana tafiya tare da juyawar duniya, ana harba shi ya zauna a wajen duniya, kuma da shi ke amfani kan sadarwa da saƙonnin kafofin yaɗa labarai. Galibi yazu tauraron ɗan’adam yana amfani da hasken rana. Tauraron ɗan’adam yana zama a wajen da ya kai nisan kilo-mita 30,000 zuwa 60,000 tsakaninsa da duniya.

Tauraron ɗan’adam (satellite)

Tauraron dan’adam, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, shi ne duk wata na’ura mai cin gashin kanta da ake harbawa zuwa sararin samaniya don miƙawa da karɓo bayanan yanayi ko ɗauko hotunan wasu wurare da ɗan’adam ba ya iya kaiwa gare su ta daɗi, ko kuma shinshino irin yanayin da muhalli zai kasance a wasu lokuta na dabam. Ire-iren waɗannan taurari suna shawagi ne a cikin falaƙin wannan duniya tamu, ko duniyar wata da taurarin da Allah ya halitta, ko kuma cikin falaƙin wasu duniyoyi makamantan namu.

A halin wannan shawagi ne suke gudanar da ayyukansu na nemo bayanai, ko karɓowa daga wani ɓangaren wannan duniya don yaɗa bayanan zuwa wasu ɓangarorin dabam, ko kuma nemo bayanan da ke da nasaba da falaƙin da suke shawagi a ciki, don aiko saƙon da suka taskance zuwa gare mu a wannan duniya, ko kuma, a wasu lokutan, su ɗauko mana hotunan abin da ke faruwa ga manya-manyan tekunan da ke zagaye da mu a duniya gabaɗaya.

Shi tauraron ɗan’adam duk karkonsa, ba ya dawwama a muhallin da aka jefa shi ciki don shawagi; yana da iyakar rayuwa da aka ɗeba masa. Da zarar aikinsa ya ƙare, zai dawo wannan duniya tamu, ko kuma, a wasu lokutan ma, yana kan aikinsa sai ya samu matsala ya wargaje ba tare da masu shi sun iya kaiwa gare shi ba. Idan ma ya gama lafiya, yana iya samun matsala wajen shigowa wannan duniya.

A taƙaice dai, duk wani tauraron ɗan’adam na da iya kwanaki ko watanni ko shekarun da aka ɗeba masa. Sannan yana da irin aikin da aka harba shi ya yi; tauraron ɗan’adam da ke gano yanayin muhalli da falaƙin da ke sararin samaniya yana dauke ne da na’urar daukar hoto, wacce ta dace da tsarin aikinsa. Wanda aka harba don gano yanayin zafi ko sanyi na ɗauke ne da na’urar da ke taimaka masa shinshino yanayin muhallin. Haka waɗanda ake harbawa don yaɗa shirye-shiryen gidajen rediyo da talabijin, duk suna da tasu sifa da ta sha bamban da sauran.

Samuwar tauraron ɗan’adam

An fara harba ire-iren waɗannan taurarin wucin-gadi ne zuwa cikin falaƙi tun shekarar (1957), kuma zuwa yanzu, an harba wajen dubu-ɗaruruwa masu zuwa don karɓowa da aikawa da bayanai ko shinshino yanayi ko kuma ɗauko hotunan sararin samaniya, don amfanin ɗan’adam. A karon farko ana amfani ne da roket, mai ɗauke da kumbo (space shuttle), don cilla wani tauraro zuwa sararin samaniya. Daga baya aka zo ana amfani da jiragen sama masu masifar gudu, duk da yake shi ma wannan tsari na buƙatar roket wanda ke harba jirgin zuwa wani mizanin nisa cikin samaniya, kafin wannan jirgi ya ingiza tauraron cikin falaƙi. Ana cikin haka sai kuma masana kimiyyar sararin samaniyar Amurka suka ɓullo da wata hanya wacce ta sha bamban da sauran wajen sauƙi da inganci. Wannan hanya kuwa ita ce ta cilla tauraron ɗan’adam daga babbar kumbon tashar binciken sararin samaniya da ke can sararin samaniya, watau US Space Shuttle. Hakan na faruwa ne domin masana na iya ƙera tauraron ɗan’adam a halin zamansu cikin wannan kumbo da ke tashar, har su harba shi. Haka idan ya lalace ko ya gama aikinsa, suna iya sanya shi cikin wani kumbo ƙarami don aikowa da shi wannan duniya tamu don a gyara shi yadda ya kamata.

Kumbon tauraron ɗan’adam

Daga baya kuma, masana harkar falaki a Amurka suka ɓullo da wani tsari mai suna “Single Stage to Orbit”, watau “tsalle ɗaya zuwa falaki” a misali Wannan tsari zai rage yawan tashoshin da tauraron ɗan’adam zai bi kafin kaiwa ga falaƙin da aka umarce shi da zuwa, wannan tsarin ya zo ne da kumbon sararin samaniya guda ɗaya, tafkeke, mai iya ɗaukar taurarin ɗan’adam da dama, don aikawa da su zuwa cikin falaƙin da ya dace da su, cikin harbawa guda.

Tauraron ɗan’adam na farko da ya fara shiga cikin falaƙin wannan duniya tamu shi ne Sputnik 1, wanda kasar Rasha ta harba a ranar 4 ga watan Oktoba, shekarar 1957. Wannan tauraro ya yi shawagi cikin falaƙi yana aiko sakonni har tsawon kwanaki ashirin da ɗaya. Bayan ya kamo hanyarsa ta dawowa duniya, sai ya ƙone a hanya. Hakan ya faru ne ranar 4 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1958. Daga nan kasar ta sake cilla wani tauraron mai suna Sputnik 2, a ranar 3 ga watan Nuwanba na shekarar 1957. A ciki suka sanya wata karya don gwaji, wacce a ƙarshe ta mace, sa’o’i biyu da harba ta, sanadiyyar tsananin zafin da ke cikin tauraron da aka sanya ta ciki. Tauraron, Sputnik 2 ya dawo wannan duniya tamu ranar 14 ga water Afrailun shekarar 1958, inda ya ƙone bayan ya shigo shi ma.

Da ganin haka sai ƙasar Amurka ta fara narkewa da kishi. Ana cikin haka sai kawai aka ji ita ma ta harba tauraronta na farko zuwa cikin falaƙin wannan duniya tamu, mai suna Explorer 1, ranar 31 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1958. Bayan nan ta sake cilla wani tauraro mai suna Discoverer 13, tauraron ɗan’adam na farko da ya fara zuwa falaƙi, ya taskance bayanan da yake buƙata ta hanyar wata na’ura, sannan ya cillo wannan na’ura zuwa wannan duniya tamu, masu binciken ƙasar Amurka suka ɗauka don tantance saƙonnin da ta kalato musu. Wannan aiki ta gudanar da shi ne cikin shekarar 1960, ranar 10 ga watan Agusta. Daga nan sauran kasashe suka biyo baya.

Nau’o’in tauraron ɗan’adam

Taurarin sadarwa (Communications Satellites)

Wadannan su ne nau’in taurarin da ke taimakawa wajen zukowa da kuma yaɗa bayanai don sadarwa a duniya gabadaya. An fara harba irin wadannan taurari ne tun shekarar 1962, lokacin da Hukumar Binciken Sararin Samaniya (watau NASA) ta kasar Amurka ta harba tauraron Telstar 1, na kamfanin AT&T.

Tauraron ɗan’adam na sadarwa (communication satellite)

An fara harba irin wadannan taurari ne tun shekarar 1962, lokacin da Hukumar Binciken Sararin Samaniya (watau NASA) ta kasar Amurka ta harba tauraron Telstar 1, na kamfanin AT&T.

Taurarin gano bigire da hangen nesa (Navigation Satellites)

Wadannan su ne nau’in tauraron ɗan’adam masu taimakawa wajen gano inda wasu abubuwa (irinsu jiragen ruwa da na sama da motoci) ko halittu (kamar mutane da sauran dabbobi) suke a duniya ko sararin samaniya. Su ake kira Navigation Satellites a turance, kuma kamar sauran waɗanda suka gabace su, suna amfani ne da siginar yanayi wajen aikawa da saƙonni zuwa cibiyar da ke lura da su a doron ƙasa, ko duk wani wanda ke dauke da na’urar da ke karɓar saƙonni daga gare su. Da su ake amfani wajen gano inda wani jirgin sama yake, musamman idan ya ɓace an rasa inda ya shiga; da su ake amfani wajen gano inda wani jirgin ruwa yake a cikin teku. Har wa yau, da wannan nau’in tauraron ɗan adam ne ake sanin bigiren da waɗannan abubuwa suke.

Tauraron ɗan’adam na gano bigire (nevigation satellite)

Tauraron gano bigire da hangen nesa na farko da ya fara zuwa falaƙi shi ne Transit 1B, wanda Hukumar Sojan Ruwa na kasar Amurka ta harba a shekarar 1960. Gwamnatin Amurka ta ci gaba da amfani davshi har zuwa shekarar 1996, inda ta canza shi da wani tsari mai suna Global Positioning System (GPS). Tsarin GPS shi ne tsarin gano bigire da hangen nesa mai amfani da taurarin ɗan’adam guda ashirin da huɗu, masu aiko saƙonnin hangen da suke yi, tare da bayar da bayanai kan bigiren da wani abu yake, a lissafe.

Taurarin gano yanayin muhalli (Weather Satellites)

Wadannan su ne nau’in tauraron dan’adam masu ɗauko hotunan sararin samaniya da irin kai komon da giragizai ke yi, wanda hakan ke nuna daidaito ko tsanantar yanayi sanadiyyar ambaliya ko iska da guguwa mai tsanani. Tauraron dan’adam mai wannan aiki yana ɗauke ne da na’urar ɗaukar hoto, watau kemara, wacce ke fuskantar sararin samaniyar wannan duniya a kullum. Yana kuma ɗauke da na’urar shinshino yanayi wajen ɗumama ko tsanantar sanyi da ruwan sama. Da zarar ya tara bayanai, sai ya tunkuɗo su zuwa cibiyar da ke lura da shi a nan duniya. Da ire-iren waɗannan bayanai ne ake amfani wajen yin hasashen yanayi a kullum (Weather Reports).

Tauraron ɗan’adam na gano yanayin muhalli

Tauraron dan Adam na farko da aka cilla zuwa cikin falaƙi don gudanar wannan aiki shibne Television Infrared Observation Satellite, ko TIROS 1, a takaice. Hukumar NASA ce ta harba shi cikin shekarar 1960, kuma ya hankaɗo mata hotunan yanayin sararin samaniya sama da dubu ashirin da uku.

Taurari kan harkar soji (Military Satellites)

Su kuma taurari kan harkar soji aikinsu shi ne tunkuɗo bayanai da hotuna masu inganci kan irin halin da duniya ke ciki na zaman lafiya ko rashin sa. Ma’ana, duk ƙasar da ta cilla tauraron dan’adam don amfanin hukumar sojinta, ta yi kan-da-garki ne don samun bayanai kan kowane irin hari ne da wata ƙasa ko al’umma za su iya kawo mata. Don haka tauraron dan’adam mai wannan aiki yana ɗauke da na’urar ɗaukar hoto ne, masu inganci, masu kuma ɗauko hotunan teku da dukkan sasannin duniya don sanin halin da ake ciki.

Tauraron ɗan’adam na harkar sojoji (military satellite)

Taurarin binciken kimiyya (Scientific Satellites)

Nau’in tauraron dan’adam na ƙarshe shi ne wanda masana kuma masu bincike kan ilimi kimiyya a jami’o’i ke amfani da shi don samun bayanai kan yadda duniya take da sauran duniyoyin da ke makwabtaka da wannan duniya tamu. Ire-iren wadannan taurarin mafi girman aikinsu shi ne ɗaukar hotunan duniya da sasanninta, da daukan hotunan tekun da ke zagaye da mu, da ɗaukar taswirar da duniya take kai. Bayan haka, saɓanin sauran taurarin da suka gabata masu yin shawagi a cikin falaƙin wannan duniya tamu kaɗai, taurarin binciken kimiyya na yin shawagi hatta cikin falaƙin wata da rana da taurari da kuma sauran duniya makamantar namu. Cikin shekarar 1990 aka harba na’urar hangen nesa mai suna The Hubble Space Telescope, mai shawagi don dauko hotuna na musamman don binciken kimiyya. Bayan wannan duniya da muke ciki, duniyar da waɗannan taurari suka fi kai ziyara cikinta ita ce duniyar Mirrik, watau Mars.

Tauraron ɗan’adam na kimiyya (scientific satellite

Manazarta

Sadik, B., & Sadik, B. (2018, August 7). Ma’ana da Nau’ukan Tauraron Dan Adam. Taskar Baban Sadik.

Wild, F. (2024, February 7). What is a satellite? (Grades K-4) – NASA. NASA.

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