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Kiba

Ƙiba ciwo ne mai kisa, hukumar lafiya ta duniya wato WHO ta nuna cewa kowace shekara mutane fiye da million huɗu suna mutuwa sakamakon ciwon ƙiba. A likitance ana kiran ciwon ƙiba obesity ko kuma overnutrition, ciwon kiba yana daga cikin cututtukan da ake ce musu, malnutrition. Malnutrition kalma ce ta likitanci da ake amfani da ita domin bayyana cututtukan da ke da alaƙa da cima. Masana sun kasa malnutrition gida biyu kamar haka:

Yaro mafi kiba a duniya
  • Overnutrition (Obesity) – Watau ciwon kiba
  • Undernutrition – Watau ciwon yunwa

Undernutrition: shi ne ciwon yunwa, yana faruwa ne a lokacin da abincin da mutum ke ci ya yi ƙasa da abincin da jikinsa ke buƙata domin gudanar da ayyuka na yau da kullum. Yana sa mutum ya rame ya lalace kamar kasusuwa. Ciwon yunwa ya fi kama ƙananan yara.

Overnutrition ko kuma obesity: yana faruwa ne  yayin da abincin da mutum yake ci ya fi ƙarfin abincin da jikinsa ke buƙata domin gudanar da ayyuka na yau da kullum. Wannan shi ke sa sauran abincin da jiki ba ya buƙata ya zama kitse ya taru a jikin mutum, ya hura mutum har ya yi ƙiba.

Yadda abinci ke sa ƙiba

Idan mutum ya ci abinci, abincin yakan narke a cikin hanjinsa sannan ya shiga cikin jininsa a matsayin sinadarin glucose domin ya samar wa mutum ƙarfi da kuzarin yin aiki. Haka kuma ƙwaƙwalwa, koda, hanta da sauran sassan jikin mutum za su yi amfani da wannan sinadarin glucose domin tafiyar da aikinsu.

A lokacin da mutum yake samun abinci fiye da yadda jikinsa ke buƙata, idan abincin da ya ci ya narke zuwa sinadarin glucose, hanta za ta zuƙe sauran sinadarin glucose da jiki ba ya buƙata a wannan lokaci ta mayar da shi sinadarin kitse.

Wannan sinadarin kitse zai taru a jikin mutum ya adana kansa a cikin tantanin halittun kitse da ake kira “fat cells”. Su kuma fat cells sukan taru su zama, adipose tissues. Taruwar sinadarin kitse a cikin adipose tissues shi ne ke sanya mutum yin kiba.

Sai dai akwai mutanen da ba sa cin abinci mai yawa amma kuma suna yin kiba sosai, kuma ko sun rage cin abinci kibar ba ta raguwa. Haka kuma akwai mutanen da suna cin abinci sosai fiye da ƙima, amma kuma ba sa yin kiba, hasali ma kullum kamar ƙara ramewa suke yi. Shin me ke janyo hakan?

Akwai wani abu da ake kira fat cells, shi ke haifar da hakan kamar yadda masana kiwon lafiya suka bayyana.

Mene ne Fat cells?

Fat cells wasu tantanin halittu ne a jikin ɗan’adam masu adana sinadarin kitse. Fiye da kashi 90 na kitsen ɗan’adam yana ajiye ne a cikin adipose tissues, kuma fat cells su ne ke taruwa su zama adipose tissues. Ana samun fat cells iri biyu a jikin ɗan’adam kamar haka:

  • White fat cells – Fat cells masu launin fari
  • Brown fat cells – Fat cells masu launin hanta

White Fat cells: masu launin fari su ne Allah ya halitta domin ajiye kitse mai yawa, sun fi masu launin hanta adana kitse kuma sun fi su yawa a jiki ɗan’adam. Haka kuma, kitsen da ke ajiye a cikin fat cells masu launin fari shi ne yake sa kiba. Mutanen da Allah ya halitta da white fat cells da yawa a jikinsu su ne ke yin kiba daga sun ci abinci ko da ba sa cin abincin da yafi karfinsu, saboda suna da ma’adanar kitse a jikinsu.

Brown Fat cells: masu launin hanta ba sa adana kitse mai yawa. Kuma kitsen da suke adanawa a jikinsu ba ya saka kiba, jiki yana amfani da wannan kalar kitsen ne wajen sanya zafin jiki da hana jin sanyi da kuma babda karfi da kuzari. Su kuma mutanen da Allah ya halitta da brown fat cells ba sa yin kiba mai yawa koda suna ci abincin da ya fi karfinsu, saboda ba su da ma’adanar kitse da yawa. Idan sun ci abinci da yawa, kitsen da zai taru a brown fat cells dinsu zai ƙone wajen samar da karfi da dimi ba ya taruwa a cikin adipose tissues balle ya samar da kiba.

Illolin ƙiba

Yana da muhimmanci a fahimci cewa ba kowace ƙiba ba ce ke da matsala, ya danganta da inda fat cells ɗin suka taru a jikin mutum. Fat cells za su iya taruwa a ƙarƙashin fata, abinda ake cewa subcutaneous fat. Wannan bai cika ba da matsala ba, yana ma taimakawa wajen rage jin sanyi da ƙara laushin fata.

Matsalar ita ce idan white fat cells suka taru a cikin kayan cikin mutum, kamar su koda, hanta da zuciya. Wannan shi ne yake kisa da kuma jawo cututtuka daban daban. Kiba na haifar da matsaloli da yawa kamar haka:

  • Tana sa mutum ya kamu da cutar hawan jini
  • Tana sa mutum ya kamu da ciwon sugar
  • Tana sa mutum ya kamu da ciwon hauhawar cholesterol
  • Kiba na janyo kawo ciwon zuciya
  • Kiba na sa bugun jini
  • Kiba na iya haifar da ciwon hanta
  • Kiba kan sa ciwon gaɓoɓi
  • Kiba na iya kawo ciwon daji kala kala, kamar su sankara ko ciwon dajin mama (breast cancer), ko ciwon dajin prostate (prostate cancer) ga maza, ko sankarar huhu da dai sauransu.
  • Kiba tana sa yawan yin tusa

Ya ake gane mutum mai ƙiba

Ana iya gane mutum yana da ƙiba ne ta hanyar auna BMI ɗinsa. BMI yana nufin BODY MASS INDEX. BMI lissafi ne ake yi kuma ana bukatar tsayin mutum ne kawai da nauyinsa.

Idan aka lissafa BMI na mutum aka samu ya haura 25kg/m². To akwai matsala ke nan wannan ana ce masa overweight, ma’ana ya yi yawa amma bai kai ga kiba mai matsala ba. Idan kuwa aka samu har BMI ya wuce 30kg/m². To wannan ya zama mai kiba mai matsala.

Hanyoyin rage riba

Motsa jiki

Hanya ta farko shi ne motsa jiki, ba sai an yi wani abu mai tsanani ba, bincike ma ya nuna ɗaya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da ke rage ƙiba da tumbi shi ne tafiyar ƙasa mai nisa.

Tsarin cin abinci

Ta hanyar sarrafa yadda ake cin abinci za a rage kiba, wannan hanya ta haɗa abubuwa guda biyu:

Na farko: shi ne rage cin abinci (Calories restriction). A likitanci idan aka ce calories ana nufin kwatankwacin abinci da mutum zai ci domin ya samar masa da karfi. Wannan hanyar ta rage cin abinci, ana so mutum ya ci abinci ƙasa da yadda jikinsa ke buƙata saboda jikinsa ya narkar da kitsen da ya taru a jikinsa domin samar masa da karfi da kuzarin aiki. Misali, a ce jiki na yana bukatar calories 1500Kcal a rana, sai mutum ya koma cin abincin da zai ba shi 1200Kcal kawai.

Hanya ta biyu: ita ce mutum ya rage chin abinci mai ɗauke da calories da yawa, kamar irin abincin da ke ɗauke da mangyada ko sugar da yawa. Saboda cin irin waɗannan abinci yakan sa mutum ya ci calories da yawa bai ankara ba.

Manazarta

BBC News Hausa. (2022, February 9). Sabbin hanyoyi biyu masu sauki na rage matsananciyar ƙiba daga Ingila da Amurka. BBC News Hausa

Ceo. (2024a, March 28). Bayani Game da illolin Kiba da kuma hanyoyin rage kiba. Lafiyata.com

White, E. (2024b, April 21). Shaci-faɗi 10 kan hanyoyin rage ƙiba. BBC News Hausa.

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