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Yanayi

Yanayi wato (weather) a Turance, yana nufin sauyin wucin gadi da ake samu na yanayi, a wani keɓantaccen yanki ko wuri da kuma lokaci. Sauyin yanayin kan haifar da zafi, girgije, iska, hazo, da sauran abubuwa. Yanayi wani abu ne mai rikitarwa kuma koyaushe yana canjawa wanda abubuwa da yawa ke da tasiri wajen canjawar kamar; kaɗawar iska, zafi, danshi, kaɗawar igiyar ruwan teku da solar radiation da sauran su.

Walƙiya da tsawa a yayin ruwan sama.

Yanayi yana taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen tsara rayuwarmu ta yau da kullun, yana tasiri ga noma, sufuri, lafiya, amfanin makamashi da yawan aikace-aikace da tattalin arziki

Rabe-raben yanayi

A. Yanayin rana (Sunny): Yanayin rana ɗaya ne daga cikin ire-iren yanayin da e wanzuwa a duniya, kodayake wasu ɓangarorin ko nahiyoyin sukan fi fuskantar wannan yanayi. Yanayin rana ya keɓantu da abubuwa kamar haka:

a. Tsananin rana
b. Washewar sararin samaniya
c. Yawaitar zafi
d. Ƙarancin danshi
e. Samun iska mai haske

Yanayin rana na da muhimmanci ta fuskoki kamar haka:

– Samar da ɗumi da kuzari
– Kyautata wasu ayyukan da ake yi a sarari, kamar wasanni da aikin lambu
– Ingantacciyar walwalar jama’a
– Samar da bitamin D ta hanyar hasken rana
– Damar ganin komai tarwai

Matsalolin da yanayin rana

– Jin zafi da kunar rana ga fatar jiki
– Fari da karancin ruwa
– Haɗarin kamuwa da cutar kansar fata
– Rashin jin daɗi da yawan gajiya
– Yana da illa ga masu cuta ta musamman, kamar tsofaffi da yara ƙanana.

Na’urar auna yanayin rana

Akwai kayan aiki da na’urori da yawa da ake amfani da su don auna yanayin rana, wasu daga cikin:

1. Pyranometer: Tana auna hasken rana (makamashi daga rana) a watts kowace murabba’in mita (W/m²).

2. Pyrheliometer: Tana auna hasken rana kai tsaye a watts kowace murabba’in mita (W/m²).

3. Solarimeter: Tana auna hasken rana a watts kowace murabba’in mita (W/m²) ko kilowatt-hours a kowace murabba’in mita (kWh/m²).

4. Sunshine Recorder: Tana auna tsawon lokacin hasken rana cikin sa’o’i ko mintuna.

5. UV Radiometer: Tana auna ultraviolet radiation daga rana a watts kowace murabba’in mita (W/m²) ko micro watts a kowace murabba’in santimita (μW/cm²).

Waɗannan kayan aikin suna taimaka wa masana kimiyya da masana yanayi aunawa da lura da yanayin rana, wanda hakan ke da mahimmanci don fahimtar yanayi, aikin gona, da aikace-aikacen makamashi da sauran su.

B. Yanayin damina (Rainy): yanayi ne da ake samun saukar ruwan sama, yanayin ƙunshe da abubuwa da suka haɗa da:

a. Gajimare
b. Girgizar kasa
a. Rage gani
d. Yanayin sanyi
e. Yawan zafi

Yanayin damina kan zo da wasu abubuwa kamar:

– Ambaliyar ruwa
– Rushewar ayyukan da ake yi a sarari
– Haifar da haɗura da jinkirin sufuri
– Inganta iska da rage gurbatar yanayi
– Ingantuwar ayyukan gona.

Yanayin damina yana nufin yanayin yanayin da ke da alaƙa da:

a. Hazo a yanayin ruwan sama
b. Girgizar kasa
c. Rage gani
d. Yanayin sanyi
e. Yawan zafi

Gajimare a yanayin damina.

Na’urar auna ruwan sama

Waɗannan kayan aikin da na’urori suna taimaka wa masana kimiyya da masu nazarin yanayi auna da lura da yanayin damina, wanda ke da mahimmanci don fahimtar yanayi, ilimin ruwa, da hasashen yanayi.

1. Rain gauge: Na’ura ce da ke auna yawan gajimare (ruwan sama, dusar ƙanƙara, sleet, ko ƙanƙara) a cikin inci ko millimeters.

2. Tipping bocket rain gauge: Wani nau’in ma’aunin ruwan sama ne wanda ke auna gajimare ta hanyar tattara ruwa a cikin bokiti, wanda ke iyakance wani lokacin da aka kai na adadin saukar ruwan.

3. Weighing rain gauge: Yana auna ruwan sama ta hanyar auna ruwan da aka tattara a cikin bokiti.

4. Disdrometer: Yana auna girma da saurin faɗuwar gajimare (ruwan sama, dusar ƙanƙara, ko ƙanƙara).

5. Pluviometer: Yana auna ƙarfin da tsawon lokacin gajimare.

6. Rain Sensor: Na’urar lantarki ce da ke gano gajimare da fitar da siginar lantarki.

C. Yanayin iska ko bazara (Windy): yana nufin yanayin da ke da alaƙa da:

a. Ƙarfin kaɗawar iska
b. Yawan saurin iska
c. Gusty yanayi
d. Busa ƙura, tarkace, ko dusar ƙanƙara
e. Rage gani

Yanayin bazara na iya haifar da:

– Rushewar ayyukan da ake yi a sarari
– Wahalar sufuri da tafiya
– Samuwar haɗura da raunuka
– Zubewar gine-gine da asarar dukiya
– Tsaiko ga sufurin jiragen sama da na ruwa

Nau’ikan iska

Gentle breeze: iska ce marar ƙarfi kuma ba ta da wani nauyi
Moderate wind: tsayayyiyar iska ce kuma tsaka-tsaki ce
Strong wind: nau’in iska ce mai ƙarfi
Gale: ita dai iska ce mai tsananin ƙarfi sosai, ta strong wind ƙarfi
Storm: wannan ita guguwa, iska mai tsananin ƙarfi wacce ke ɗaukar tarkacen abubuwa ta sauya musu muhalli ko ma ta lalata su.

Yanayin guguwa na iya yin tasiri ga rayuwarmu ta yau da kullun ta fuskar:

• Ruguza sufuri da tafiye-tafiye
• Katsewar wutar lantarki
• Yana shafar lafiyar ƙwaƙwalwa da tunani
• Tasiri ga noma da gandun daji
• Haifar da raunuka ko mace-mace
• Tasiri ga tattalin arziki

Na’urorin auna ire-iren yanayi.

Na’urar suna yanayin iska

Waɗannan kayan aikin suna taimaka wa masana kimiyya da masana yanayi a aunawa da lura da yanayin iska, wanda ke da mahimmanci don fahimtar yanayi, hasashen yanayi, da aikace-aikacen makamashin iska.

Akwai kayan aiki da yawa da ake amfani da su don auna yanayin iska, gami da:

1. Anemometer: Tana auna saurin iska da alkibla, yawanci ana amfani da kofuna ko na’urori.

2. Wind vane: Tana auna alkiblar iska, galibi ana amfani da shi tare da anemometer.

3. Wind speed sensor: Na’urar lantarki ce mai auna saurin iska, galibi ana amfani da fasahar ultrasonic ko Laser.

4. Cup Anemometer: Nau’in anemometer ne wanda ke amfani da kofuna don auna saurin iska.

5. Propeller Anemometer: Nau’in anemometer ne da ke amfani da farfela don auna saurin iska.

6. Hot-Wire Anemometer: Tana auna saurin iska ta hanyar gano tasirin sanyaya iska akan waya mai zafi.

7. Laser Anemometer: Tana auna saurin iska ta hanyar gano mitar motsi ta hasken Laser da barbashi a cikin iska.

8. Weather station: Yawancin tashoshin yanayi sun haɗa da kayan aiki da na’urori don auna saurin iska da alkibla, tare da sauran yanayi.

D. Yanayi hazo (Foggy): yanayi ne da ke bayyana a cikin hunturu, ana samun saukar ƙura sosai, a wasu lokutan har ba iya ganin hasken rana, yanayin kan haifar da:

a. Rage gani
b. Gajimare ko hazo a matakin kasa
c. Iska mai cike da danshi
d. Sanyaya iska
e. Ƙarancin hasken rana

Matsalolin yanayin hazo

– Rage gani yayin tuƙi ko tafiya
– Dakatawar sufuri da tafiye-tafiye
– Jinkiri ko soke tashin jiragen sama
– Yawaitar haɗura da raunuka
– Tasiri ga ayyukan da ake yi a sarari
– Matsalolin numfashi

Nau’ikan hazo

1. Radiation fog: yakan wanzu a dare ɗaya sakamakon sanyi
2. Advection fog: nau’in hazo ne da ke tashi lokacin da iska mai dumi ta hadu da tsandauri mai sanyi
3. Upslope fog: wannan nau’in hazon na tasowa lokacin da iska ta tashi da sanyi
4. Valley fog: yana samuwa a ƙananan wurare
5. Sea fog: Wannan kuwa yakan wanzu ne a yankunan bakin teku

Na’urar auna yanayin hazo

Akwai kayan aiki da da na’urori masu yawa da ake amfani da su don auna yanayin hazo, sun haɗa da:

1. Visibility sensor: Yana auna nisan da ake iya ganin abubuwa, galibi ta amfani da fasahar infrared ko ultrasonic

2. Fog detector: Yana gano kasancewar hazo, sau da yawa ta amfani da fasahar watsa haske.

3. Transmissometer: Tana auna watsa haske ta cikin yanayi, tana kuma nuna yawan hazo.

4. Scintillometer: Tana auna tarwatsa haske ta hanyar hazo, tana kuma nuna yawan hazo.

5. Ceilometer: Tana auna tsayin tushen girgije ko hazo.

6. Present weather sensor: Na’ura ce da ke ganowa tare da ba da rahoton yanayin da ake ciki game da hazo.

7. Automatic Weather Observation System (AWOS): Wannan ya haɗa da kayan aiki don auna yanayin gani da kuma girgije, da sauran yanayi.

Waɗannan kayan aiki da na’urori suna taimaka wa masana kimiyya, masana yanayi, da hukumomin sufuri su auna da lura da yanayin hazo, wanda ke da mahimmanci ga zirga-zirgar jiragen sama, sufuri, da sauran su.

Manazarta

Weather. (n.d.). Weather. National Geographic Library

What is weather? – NCAS. (n.d.). What is weather?NCAS.

Zamore, W. (n.d.). Weather elements and instruments used for measurement. Dominica Meteorological Service.

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