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Ginshikan blockchain

Kamar yadda muka sani, kowanne abu yana da ginshiƙi watau doron abin da aka ɗora shi yake tafiya yadda ake so. To haka ma fasahar blockchain, an yi mata shisshike da take gudana bisa gare shi. Waɗannan ginshiƙai wajibi ne ga wanzuwar fasahar. Idan babu ɗaya to ragowar sun samu tasgaro, aikinsu zai taƙaita. Waɗannan ginshiƙai su ne kamar haka:

1. Node – Na’urar kwamfuta

Duk na’urar kwamfutar da aka sanya mata manhajar blockchain, to ta zama node, aikinta ya zamana na hadawa da sarrafawa da kuma alkinta bayanan da suka hau doron fasahar blockchain. Yawan adadin kwamfutocin da suka hau bisa wannan turbar su ne adadin bunƙasar ta. Kowanne node na ɗauke da manhajoji na musamman da ke sarrafa abubuwan da ake buƙata.

Node nau’i uku ce: miner nodes da full nodes, da kuma light nodes. Kowanne nau’i da irin aikin da take gudanarwa. Misali, miner node, da ita ake yin zabari kuma tana ƙunshe da dukkan bayanan da ke duniyar Blockchain ta irin abin da ake aiki akai. Kuma da ita ne ake zabarin sabbin kiriftokaransi. A baya can, kowacce irin kwamfuta, hatta waya ma na iya zama miner, amma yanzu da tafiya ta yi nisa, sai abin ya zamana aikin manyan kwamfutoci ne da ake kira ASIC. Farashin kowacce guda yana kamawa daga dala dubu 2 zuwa dala dubu 10. Za mu yi cikakken bayani idan muka zo maganar zabari watau mining.

Tsarin aikin node kuwa iri biyu ne, na ɗaya da ake kira ‘Listening Node’ shi ne wanda yake buɗe ga kowa da kowa. Bitcoin na amfani da wannan node da kowa zai iya buɗe kwamfuta ya jona da sauran kwamfutocin. Nau’i na biyu kuma shi ne wanda ake kira, “non-listening node”, wannan kuma a rufe tsarin yake, babu mai iya sanin halin da take ciki sai mamallakansu.

Dangane da adadin yawan na’urorin miner node kuwa, wani ƙwararren masani a lamarin fasahar bitcoin, ya bayyana cewar a cikin watan Mayu akwai buɗaɗɗun nodes kimanin guda dubu 830.  A ƙarƙashin kowacce node akwai masarrafai akalla 1100.

2. Distributed Ledger – Littafin gama gari

Mun riga mun yi bayaninsa a baya,  shi ma wani ginshiki ne a fasahar blockchain, domin kuwa anan ne ajiye bayanan dukkan abin da ya gudana. A ƙarƙashin wannan ginshiki ne ajiyar kowacce lalita (wallet) take.

Mutum na da ikon bayyana sunansa ko wani abu da yake so a sani. Kowanne bayani yana da kebantaccen adireshinsa da ake kira Contract Address. Idan mutum zai shiga taskar bayanansa, zai iya ta amfani da kalmomin sirri da wasu ɗalamisai da ake kira private key.

Daga shekarar 2016 ne gwamnatoci da kamfanoni da wasu bankuna suka soma tunanin jarraba aiki da irin wannan littafi domin ganin irin tasirin da fasahar blockchain za ta yi ga harkokinsu na yau da kullum.

3. Consensus algorithm – Takamaiman tsarin aiwatar da lissafi

Kamar yadda muka bayyana a baya, a duk lokacin da wani yake son gudanar da musayar kudi ko wani abu ta ƙarƙashin fasahar blockchain, sai an samu wasu daga masu sa ido da ake kira nodes sun tantance bayanan sannan a yi masa rijista a samar masa da mazauni na dindindin. Wannan aiki da suke yi, suna yin sa ne bisa wata tsararriyar hanyar lissafi da aka tanada. Lissafin ana kiransa da Hash Algorithm, sauri ko karfin sarrafa lissafin ana kiransa Hash Power Rate.

Akwai kuma fitattun hanyoyin da ake bi wajen aiwatar da wannan lissafi. Wasu daga ciki sun gada da Proof of Work, Proof of Stake da kuma Proof of Authority. Kowanne da irin yadda ake aiwatar da shi. Misali, Bitcoin da Dogecoin da Litecoin suna tafiya ne bisa tsarin Proof of Work, Etherium da Cardano da sauransu suna tafiya ne akan tsarin Proof of Stake. Shi kuma Ripple da sauransu na kan tsarin Proof of Authority.

Fannonin da ake amfani da fasahar blockchain

Daga bayyanar fasahar zuwa yanzu, bangarori da dama suna ta ƙoƙarin jarraba shigar aikinsu cikinta. Daga ciki akwai harkar kiwon lafiya, ilimi, kantunan sayar da abinci, gidajen sinima da kuma bankuna. A shekarar  2018 wasu suka yi iƙirarin cewar ƙasar Saliyo ta yi amfani da fasahar blockchain a wajen zaɓe, sai dai babu jimawa hukumar zaɓen ƙasar ta ƙaryata wannan iƙrarin. Sai dai a watan Nuwamba ta 2018 ne jihar Western Virginia ta jarraba gudanar da zaɓe ta hanyar amfani da fasahar amma ga wasu keɓaɓɓun masu zaɓe kaɗai.

Har yanzu dai ana kan jarrabawa ne a auna irin tasirin fasahar. Jami’ar Harvard ta fitar da wani rahoto da ke bayyana cewar, duk da Blockchain ya zo da salon inganta adana bayanai, amma ba zai samu karɓuwa cikakkiya ba saboda tsarabobin da ke ciki da kuma rashin tartibin mai sarrafa abin da ake buƙata.

Matsaloli

Duk da ɗumbin amfanin da aka ambata na wannan fasahar, akwai wasu illolin da masana suke ganin za ta iya haifarwa. Na farko dai bayanan da ake ɗurawa cikinta kullum suna ƙara hauhawa ne, kuma dole a samar da wuraren da za a alkinta su gaba ɗaya ba tare da tauyewa ba. Don haka ana ganin nan gaba, ba kowacce kwamfuta ko node ne zai iya sarrafa bayanan da ake buƙata ba. Zai zama garari ga me neman wani tsohon bayani amma sai ya sauke duka miliyoyin batutuwa kafin ya kai inda yake so.

Hakanan hanyoyin da ake bi wajen zabari (mining) suna taka rawa wajen gurbata muhalli. An bayyana cewar, ana bukatar karfin lantarki na kimanin Wat 7200 kafin a iya tono Bitcoin guda ɗaya. Don haka ma a halin yanzu, mutum guda ko kamfani guda ba sa iya zabari sai an hada karfi da karfe. Har ila yau kuma kullum zabarin kara wahala yake yi, adadin karfin lantarki da sauran abubuwa kara yawa suke yi. Wannan ta sa farashin Bitcoin da sauran dangoginsa ke tashin gwauron zabi har kuma ma’ajiyar bayanan tasu ta yi gishirin andurus ba tare da wani kwakkwaran dalili ba.

Shin ana iya satar bayanai daga blockchain?

Masu goyon bayan wannan fasahar suna da’awar cewar har abada ba za a iya satar fasaha ko kutse cikinta ba. Mun bayyana cewar duk abin da ya shiga cikinta ya zaune kenan dindindin babu canjawa ko gogewa. Sai dai masu nazari sun gano cewar akwai wasu hanyoyi da ‘yan dandatsa ke iya bi su sace wa mutane bayanansu da kuma dukiyarsu.

Wasu daga cikin hanyoyin sun haɗa da 51% Rule, da Smart Contract Bug da kuma  dabarar Phising Social Engineering. Har ila yau a kullum ana samun bayyanar wasu ‘yan damfara da sunan Blockchain na bogi suna kwashewa mutane dukiya da bayanai.

Masu bin ƙididdigar asarorin da aka tafka ƙarƙashin Blockchain daga 2017 zuwa 2019, sun bayyana cewar mutane sun yi asarar kimanin dala biliyan 2 da doriya. Haka nan mutanen duniya sun tafka asarar sama da dala biliyan 3 da doriya.

Makoma

Masu nazari sun fi karkata cewar, duk da cewar fasahar blockchain ba za ta gushe dungurum ba, amma nan gaba za ta rage tasiri idan gwamnatoci da hukumomi suka fito da nasu tsare-tsaren wanda zai yi wa tsarin da ake tafiya yanzu kwaskwarima. Haka nan kuma ana ganin ƙasashe na iya rungumar fasahar kamar yadda take su gina hanyar gudanar kuɗaɗen ƙasashensu. Sai dai hakan ba zai zama abin alfahari ga kasuwannin cinikin kuɗaɗen intanet ba watau Exchanges.

Kammalawa

Haƙiƙa samuwar Blockchain da kuɗaɗen intanet sun zo kenan, sai dai nan da shekaru masu zuwa za su gamu da sauye-sauye masu yawa a hannun hukumomin kasashen duniya da a halin yanzu suka dukufa binciken hanyoyin da za su bi wajen kaddamar da nasu kudaden intanet din da kuma samar da karfin ikon fada aji yadda suke yi a kudaden kasashensu.

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