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Rana

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Rana siffarta tamkar ƙwallo take, tana ƙunshe da iskar hydrogen da helium, kuma masana kimiyya na hasashen ta samu ne shekara biliyan 4 da miliyan 500 da suka wuce. Kuma hasken rana da muke samu a duniyarmu ta Earth, shi ne jigon tafiyar da rayuwar mutane da dabbobi da duk wasu halittu da ke rayuwar a duniyarmu ta Earth. Wato ma’ana dai, ita ce ke ciyar da rayuwarmu da dukkan abubuwan da Allah Ya halitta a ƙarƙashinta.

Yanayin rana, a lokacin fitowa da faduwa

Asalinta

Hasashen masana kimiyya ya nuna ta samu ne ta yadda fashe-fashen nukiliya a tumbinta suka amayo da ƙwayoyin halitta, waɗanda suka yi ta maƙaluwa suna goyon juna ta hanyoyi iri-iri, har sai da halittu suka tsiro daga gare su.

Akwai duniyoyi tara da suke zagaye rana a unguwar tamu ta Solar system , sannan akwai dubun-dubatar curarrun duwatsu masu zagaya rana cikin ƙwambarsu da aka fi sani da asteroids, da kuma comets har tiriliyan uku da ke zagaye ta.

Mene ne Comets?

Comets wata curarrar aba ce mai kan ƙanƙara amma kuma tana feshin gas da ƙura, da suke ziyartar unguwar rana su zagaya su koma.

Comet

Rana tana cikin birnin Milkyway Galaxy ne, a can wata ƴar kwana a hannun Orion na Birnin Milkiwe ɗin, amma tana da nisan shekarun haske 30,000 zuwa dandalin birnin, don haka ta kasance tamkar ɗigon allura a cikin kafatanin birnin, kamar yadda masana suka tabbatar.

Nisan rana daga duniyarmu ta Earth tafiyar kilomita miliyan 150 ce, wato a lissafin shekarar haske kuma ba ta wuce minti takwas da sekon ɗaya na saurin haske ba. Idan a mota ce mai tafiyar kilomita 100 cikin awa ɗaya, kuma za a yi tafiya ba tare da hutawa ba, to za a iya isa inda rana take a cikin shekara 106. Idan kuwa a jirgin sama jannati za a tafi wanda yake tafiyar kilomita 246,960 a duk sa’a ɗaya, to akwai yiwuwar shafe awa 606 ko kwana 25 yana tafiya daga duniyar Earth zuwa wajen rana.

Rana ita ce tauraruwa mafi girma a unguwar da duniyarmu ta Earth ke ciki, wato Solar System

Faɗin rufaffen kumbonta daga gefe zuwa gefe wato diameter ya kusa kilomita miliyan ɗaya da dubu 300, wato ya ninka duniyarmu ta Earth sau 109 a faɗi.

Tumbinta kuwa, ya ninka na duniyar Earth sau fiye da miliyan ɗaya da dubu 300.

Daga nan duniyar Earth muna hango rana ne tamkar faifai, sai dai ba ta da turɓaya don jikinta na garwashin wuta ne da iskar gas. Saboda tsananin wutar, takan fesa harsunanta cikin samaniya fiye da dubban kilomitoci. Zafin harsunan wutar kan kai fiye da digiri 10,000 sannan sukan yi tsiri a sararin samaniya fiye da kilomita 160,000 zuwa 300,000 da fadin kilomita 8,000 zuwa 10,000. A wasu lokutan sai harshen wutar ya yi watanni ko ma shekaru yana tsiri cikin fishi da kurari.

Wani ɗakin kimiyya mai shawagi a sararin samaniya ta hanyar amfani da na’urorinsa ya taɓa auna irin wannan harshe na wutar rana a ranar 19 ga watan Disamban 1973. A nan ne suka ga harshen ya feso da tsibirin kilomita 588,000. Wannan tsibirin na harshen wutar ta rana ya ninka faɗin duniyar Earth sau 45.

Zafin tumbinta ya fi digiri miliyan 16, amma a kan doronta zafin ba ya wuce digiri 6,000. Hakan ne ma ya sa haskenta ya ninka na wata sau 400,000, duk da yake dama daga jikinta ne watan yake samo haskensa.

Nauyinta

Nauyin rana kuwa ya nunka na duniyar Earth sau 333,000, amma duk da nauyin tana tafiya zagayenta da saurin kilomita 2,150 a kowane sekan na agogo. Sannan ta kan ɗauki tsawon shekara 250 kafin ta yi kewaye ɗaya.

Nisan rana daga duniyarmu tafiyar kilomita miliyan 150 ne

Makarinta da yadda take husufi

Rana tana da makarinta na atmosfiya da ake kira corona. Sannan ita ma duniyar Earth tana da nata makarin wato ozone layer da yake kare ta daga illar da zafin rana ke iya yi wa duk wani abu mai rai da ma muhalli a kan doron Earth ɗin. Ozone layer na da nisan kilomita 15 zuwa 30 daga saman Earth.

Husufin rana

Husufin rana kan faru ne a lokacin da wata ya shiga tsakanin duniyarmu ta Earth da rana, kuma saboda nisan da ke tsakanin wata da rana, sai watan ya rufe rana ruf tamkar girmansu ɗaya. Amma hakan kan faru ne a lokacin da wata ya yi nesa da rana, to ya kan ɗan bar haske ya leƙo daga bisanin faifan rana, shi ma hasken a zagaye tamkar husufi mai ƙawanya.

Yanayin rana a lokacin da ta yi husufi

A yayin cikakken husufi kuwa, inuwar wata kan dira a kan doron duniyar Earth, kuma ta bazu fiye da kilomita 268 a kasashen da inuwar ta sauka. Ko da yake ba ko ina ake ganin inuwar ba, amma yawanci inda gari a waye yake, wato bangaren Earth da ke fuskantar rana a wannan lokacin suna iya ganin husufin.

A yayin kuwa da watan yake ƙasa-ƙasa, to kaɗan daga fuskar rana yake iya rufewa; don haka, inuwar take zama ƙarama a hali irin wannan na ƙaramin husufi, wato partial eclipse.

Bambancin rana da wata

Launukanta

Kamar yadda muke gani daga duniyar Earth, launukan rana kan sassauya, wani lokacin ta zama ja ko ruwan ɗorawa (yellow) ko ruwan goro (orange) ku kuma fara fat.

Dalilan ba wasu masu tsauri ba ne da suka wuce hakan na faruwa ne a lokacin da take ɓullowa ta sararin samaniyar Earth wato wayewar gari, da lokacin da ta take a samaniyar da kuma lokacin da take shirin ɓacewa a samaniyar can da magariba ke nan.

Launukan rana

A yayin da take ɓullowa a lokacin wayewar gari da kuma lokacin da almuru ya durfafo rana ta kan zama yalo ko ja ko ruwan goro ne. Kuma hakan kan faru ne saboda yadda ainihin kalolinta na kurkusa wato kore da shuɗi da shanshanbale (violet) ke tarwatsuwa ne a sararin samaniyar duniyar Earth. Don haka ne mu daga nan duniyar ba abin da za mu gani sai kala uku; ko yalo ko ja ko ruwan goro. Idan kuma rana ta zo ƙololuwar samaniya wato ta take, to a lokacin ne sai a ga ta yi fari fat a sama.

Muhimmancin rana ga duniyar Earth da halittunta

Manazarta

Saleh, H. U. (2022, January 23). Abu bakwai da kuke bukatar sani game da rana. BBC News Hausa.

Sun – NASA Science. Sun (n.d.).

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